Ruling on dealing in currencies in the FOREX system and

Small summary of the dark centuries of the Maghreb

The dark ages for the Maghreb
I’ve always been interested in our own history, when they talk about history it’s always about Asia and Europe, whenever Africa got mentioned it had to do with slavery, so I had 3 questions in mind:
A) Why was North-Africa more civilized than the rest of Africa?
B) Were Moroccans ever enslaved?
C) Were the Moroccans 2000 years ago black or did they became white due to the skin adaption to it’s climate?
The prominent people in the Maghreb were ancestral Berbers. The North African region displayed extreme environmental contrasts: fertile coastal plains merging southwards into arid pasture and eventually desert. Ancient authors (from c.945 BC) displayed distinguished tree main population groups: The Most numerous were berbers of the northern plains and especially the more accessible mountain areas , who were plough-using, irrigating agriculturalist and stock-keepers conventionally divided into Mauri in the west (modern Morocco) and Numidians in the center and east (Algerians and Tunisia). The second group were berber semipastoralists in the arid pastures and deserts. The third group were scattered groups in desert oases and outcrops (notably the Garmantes of the Fezzan and the ancestors of modern Tubi and Tibesti) 1).
The Roman accounts stressed ethnic difference and conflict between agriculturalists and nomad, but modern research has show how much exchange and symbiosis between. (So did they look like the romans?) Both practiced a religion centered on the forces of nature and fertility. Both appear to have had segmentary social and political systems in which each person belonged to a several group 1).
Chapter I: The Carthaginian Empire
Late in the second millennium the Phoenician traders from Lebanon began to colonize the North African coast, in 814 BC the empire of Carthage was established it was is now known as modern Tunisia. Their aim was to capture the western Mediterranean trade and their chief importance in Africa was to integrate the North into Mediterranean history, just at the moment when the desiccation of the Sahara interrupted communication with tropical Africa 1).
Only the norther parts of the Maghreb was part of the Carthaginian empire, they used these fertile lands for their own purposes. They established great wheat farms, while on the eastern coast they farmed olive trees from which they got famous from. Ancient sources describe these farms as ‘slave estates’ and record frequent ‘slave risings’ while some scholars believe that the labourers were the original berber inhabitants that were reduced to labour-tenants and sharecroppers 1).
Chapter II: The fall of the Carthaginian Empire and the rise of the Roman Empire
In 241 BC Carthage lost it’s first disastrous war with the rising power of Rome. The defeat led the city to demand more tax, tribute and labour from surrounding Berbers and to seek greater control over them. Jugurtha, a berber king fought against the Romans until he got betrayed in 105 BC. The Romans conquerors then settled their troops west of Carthage. This is when the colonialization began sixty yesars later. In the first century, 100 AD, there was an estimated 10.000 – 20.000 Roman immigrants that settled in the Roman territory that stretched from central Morocco to western Libya 1).
Don’t forget the first genocide was the Carthaginian genocide, the Romans massacred the Carthaginians and took 50.000 prisoners as slaves.
The Romans kept using the North Africans countries as farmlands just like the Carthaginians, this is how they gained a lot of wealth. It was the main exporter for grain and olive oil. There were hundreds of ships that exported grain, olive oil and other food to Rome which had around 1 million inhabitants 2).
Slavery played an import role in ancient Rome, unlike the Carthaginians these slaves were besides manual labor also used for performing many domestic services and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. The majority of the slaved they used were acquired through warfare, the local berbers that lost while fighting against the Romans were also taken as slaves, captives were brought as war booty or sold to traders. In the 2nd century AD Christianity was introduced, most likely by force and those who rebelled were taken as slaves In the 5th century the Romans also used wide-scaled kidnapping which happened mainly in North-Africa to obtain slaves in the early 5th century AD. There were estimated 5 million slaves in Rome in the 1ste century BC alone, I have no idea how many were North Africans. The slaves also had no personality so he didn’t own his body, therefore he had no name, no cognomen, no ancestors and no cognomen (3.
We all heard about the colosseums, slaves had to fight each other and animals. This is one of the reasons the barbary elephants came to extinction.
Chapter III: Fall of Roman Empire
I honestly have no idea what happened, the Mauretania was a client of the Roman empire and the Mauretania empire lasted until 430 AD. No idea what happened after that, if you know please fill this in (byzantine empire?). The Romanized areas had been Christianized but there was also a substantial Jewish population (3.
Chapter IV: Muslim conquest
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb started in the middle of the 7th century and was achieved in the early 8th century. The first invasion commenced In 647 with 20.000 Arab soldiers which failed. The 2nd invasion pretty much made them take over North Africa except Morocco. With the 3rd invasion in 708 they took over Morocco too and had control of Northern Africa. The war captives were most likely enslaved and sold, the ones that converted to Islam would be free since enslaving Muslims was completely forbidden (4.
Apparently Islam was only forced in North Africa, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchant, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves (5.
Chapter V: Muslim dynasties
From this point on there were many dynasties, until 1060 there were Arab Dynasties in Morocco, from 1060-1549 there were berber dynasties. From 1549-present there are Arab dynasties again in Morocco
Chapter VI: Spanish Reconquista (1492)
The Iberians (Portugal and Spain) pushed the Muslims back from Iberia, while Spain was an Islamic country from 711-1492 (Al-Andalus). The Spanish inquisition won their land back, murdering and enslaving many people. This caused the mass migration of the Spanish Muslims and Jewish people in Morocco since it was a country of refuge and tolerance (6.
Chapter VII: Barbary slave trade
Can’t find the source but the barbary pirates that lost the war at sea were also taken as slaves
Chapter IIX: European Influence (1830-1956)
While we may be had a protégé system, this was abused. It ended up being a luxury word for colony. In North Africa (mainly Algeria) and other white settler countries such as Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa were the most fertile lands forcibly expropriated from the indigenous populations for use by white settlers. In these countries African farmers were pushed onto "native reserves," usually located on arid, marginal lands.
Even someone as Mohammed Abdelkrim El Khattabi thought Spain would want the best for Morocco but after realizing that was a lie he rebelled, made the Republic of the Rif and fought against the colonizers. While being vastly outnumbered his intelligence and tactics booked made him won many fights. In the end the colonizers threw mustard gas against them and other civilians which they are still denying and still effects the current population (high cancer ratios in the rif). (Should we start a petition to make them acknowledge it and let them pay for the medial bills?)
A & B) North-African countries suffered a lot because they were ‘’blessed’ by the fertile lands and strategic position. So much for ‘’civilization’’, everyone that conquered us had us assimilate to their religion and traditions and used us as slaves mainly for physical labor. I also couldn’t find any numbers of how many North-Africans were enslaved except in the 1st century BC there were 5 million slaves in the Roman empire. The Sahara was a great border, it protected the sub-Saharan countries for many years. Even if you managed to get through them, there were still tropical diseased which people were not resistant from.
C) It’s a shame that I couldn’t make the correlation if Moroccans were actually black or not. It’s scientific proven that black Africans were the first people and the further they went north, the less sunlight they got so they had to adapt to those climates. The sahara was appearantly green back then. Source=
I assume it’s both but there are also hieroglyphs that showed white Egyptians. In the does our skin color even matter? According to Chouki el Hamel’s book Black Morocco: A history of slavery, race and Islam European travel narratives generally represented Morocco as free of racial or color. It was a country of tolerance and refuge. The color prejudice happened after the colonization by France and Spain. We are just one people that come in every shade of color with a great amount of history, there is no reason to hate each other because the colonizers did so.
  1. Africans: The History of a Continent written by Jon Iliffe (pages 29-32).
submitted by Fresh00prince to Morocco [link] [comments]

Stock Market Investing Advice.

There has been a lot of posts recently about individuals who want to invest their money into the stock market. I have been investing since I was 19 and currently in my early 30s. I have been through a couple of market bubbles and noticed the FOMO crowd.
The reason I am writing this post on Dubai is that bankruptcy laws are different here compared to other regions. I have no argument about bankruptcy laws here, as we do not really pay tax for such protection (if you want to comment on that, please do not participate in this post).
Before I start, I personally believe that your online presence and especially Reddit should be NET POSITIVE, we all should be adding value to the community.
There is a post on how to make brokerage account made by u/AmrRDXB POST . I believe this guy is a net positive guy do this community.
There are two types of trading/investing. One would follow the stock charts (Analytical) and others would follow the company records and finance (fundamental) both approaches have their pros and cons.
In layman's terms, one will not open an MMA gym and compete the gym stud of fighters for the UFC unless they know the game, they know techniques of fighters and know who to pick, who to train, and which fighter is ready to compete. Doctors would not do surgery unless they adopt years of education and......... I hope you see where I am going.....
Investing is not soo different, you need to understand the market, you need to learn and acquire information, if there is a point where you think you know enough, that is when you should be worried.
There are plenty of books out there which discuss and inform their readers on market patterns, I personally advise each one of you who want to invest/trade to read or listen to these books. If you are not willing to spend a couple of hours on a book, then you should not gamble your networth away and maybe post on this group how the bank is calling you for debt payments.
My starter book package is the following:
Look into Catherine Wood, she is one, in my opinion, the greatest investor in our time. Her investments are future driven.
There are few youtube channels which in my opinion are very informative.
I have so much more to say, but this post is getting too long. I recently had a silly argument with one this subreddit member, who want to trade a highly leverage option trade.
One thing which I believe is important to the state. In all the interviews with the top traders in market wizards, most, if not all stated that they only practised leveraged/margin trades after years in the market and only then they could accept the risk approach.
I believe leverage/margin is the poison of our global economy.
I really hope this is helpful to you guys.
submitted by LeftTurnRightAway to dubai [link] [comments]

The Best of Rubinville - 2005 Edition

2005 saw Dave Rubin's blog, "Rubinville", really take off. Dave continues fat shaming people; both famous (Kirstie Alley, Star Jones, Andy Milonakis, Anna Nichole Smith) and non-famous. (It's funny because Dave recently tweeted out to Kirstie Alley for her to do his show.) Dave voted for Republican Michael Bloomberg in the 2005 NYC Mayoral race. Some of Dave's favorite shows include The View, Tony Danza, and any program on CNN or Fox News. Dave wishes death to Jeff Zucker for not picking up a failed sketch show of his and continues to believe that Tom Hanks stole his material and used it on The Tonight Show. (Dave previously mentioned this in his blog; 2003/4.) Dave mocks Adam Carolla and Mike Rowe; he is now friendly with both. In the beginning of 2005, Dave promises to no longer stalk Ellen but he goes back on that promise. Except this time, Dave shares his daily e-mails to Ellen. Lastly, Dave continues to use slurs against Asian people, Arabic people, little people, and well, anyone he doesn't like.
2005 Rubinville
01/09/2005 Palestian elections are today and most people are expecting Abu Mazen to win by a solid margin. If any Palestians are reading this and haven't voted yet, please use your vote to write-in Arab-American actor Tony Shaloub. People think to think his show 'Monk' is funny, but it actually sucks and I think he'll be out of work soon enough. I still can't get over that dump I took. I think I lost a vital organ.
01/18/2005 It's absolutely freezing outside. I recommend boxers briefs with a pair of regualr boxers above them to keep your balls nice and toasty. Everyone loves toasty balls. Watched the Golden Globes...I'd just like to say that Star Jones had a lump of fat coming out of her dress in the armpit area. So very disturbing…I've officially stopped writing Ellen Degeneres e-mails because she refuses to respond. That's it Ellen, no more compliments about your dancing either.
01/20/2005 I wonder wish of the Bush twins gives better head.
01/23/2005 Leno has just totally wrecked that show and no self-respecting comic can stand the guy. Though, as I have joked before, I probably shouldn't write that. The stuff that we have been doing at the Comedy Company lately is the type of stand up that Johnny would've loved, I'm sure. So Dave Letterman, if you find yourself a lil nostalgic, and looking for new comics like how Johnny once found you, I'm only about 3 blocks away.
02/10/2005 In other news, turns out that Hakeem Olajuwon gave money to a Islamic charity than ended up funding Hamas and other terrorist organizations. Hewlett Packard fired their CEO yesterday, further shrinkening the amount of female CEO's at major companies. Does this have anything to do with why my HP printer acts like a bitch whenever I try to print a color document? That was so weak, I apologize to you and your family.
02/14/2005 I then took the money I made and donated it to a Muslim charity which I later found out was just a front for Hamas. Oh wait, that was Hakeeem Olajuwon.
02/16/2005 Ashley Olsen is suing the National Enquirer for 40 million dollars for spreaidn what she calls false lies about her being involved in a drug scandal. I don't know if that's true or not but I banged her last night while she did cocaine off her sister's asscrack...Can someone please explain to me the logic behind Kirstie Alley being the spokeswoman for the new Jenny Craig ads? She's fat. Am I missing something here? Have they just given up altogether?
02/23/2005 Now, I wasn't there so I don't know what was said before the melee, but lemme say that fat people are usually hungry, and contrary to popular belief, not as jolly as they would have you believe. So, if one cuts you in line at a pizza place, just let them do it. Most likely they will die of a heart condition relatively soon, and they need to max out their eating time here on Earth.
03/06/2005 Dan Rather is about to officially sign off from the CBS news desk. In an interview Donald Trump says he would have told Rather "You're fired" a long time ago. Fortunately, for Rather he isn't a contestant on a tired reality show, he's just the host of a made-up news show.
Syrian President Bashar Assad says his country will move it's troops mostly out of Lebannon. Assad who, after the announcement, went to one of his many palaces and made his many female servents fondle him. Sammy Sosa got ejected in his second pre-season game….and watched the game from the clubhouse where some of his many female servants fondled him.
03/23/2005. Richard Simmons was on the Tony Danza Show this morning. I've never seen one man (Danza) so afraid of a woman (Simmons) before. The feeding tube is still out of Terry Shiavo. Call me crazy but I think that if a person is in a constant vegetative state and is being kept alive artificially by machines and her husband has nothign to gain by her death, except peace of mind, then, well, we should let her die.
04/11/2005 A special shout out to the asian girl up front who wouldn't even let me get a joke out before she told me that she loves oragami and calculus. Maury Povich is on ESPN's Cold Pizza right now. He's wearing so much makeup that he is starting to look like Connie Chung. Doesn't Connie Chung sounds like a type of infectious disease? "Dude, that's a pretty bad cough you got there" "Yea, I've got a bad case of Connie Chung."
04/15/2005 Just saw a commercial for "8 Simple Rules" on ABC. It said there is a secret so shocking that "it will upset even special guest Nicole Ritchie!" (Insert coked-up whore joke here)
04/27/2005 As some of you may know every other day or so I send Ellen Degeneres an e-mail with no specific point. Sometimes I just update her on things I'm doing, sometimes I ask a random question, sometimes I rant about politics. I've been doing this for about a year and have yet to get even one response back. So today it hit me, maybe Ellen isn't even getting my e-mails and they are being filtered out by some assistant or intern. So starting today, whenever I send Ellen an e-mail I'm also going to post a copy of it here in the Daily Dave. Here's what I sent today...
Ellen, I'm starting to think by your lack of responses to my emails that someone else is reading your emails. Who is this person? What qualifies them to read things in your name? How do they decide what gets passed onto you?
I realize that this person is reading this right now and thus probably won't pass it along, but I just want to say to that person that Ellen would really like to read this email and if you stop her from doing so, you are really stopping freedom of speech, which is the most American thing out there, and Ellen is pro-America, is she not??
Now I suppose we wait and see. The ball is in your court Ellen..
04/29/2005 Anyways, the point of this continues the string of good interactions I've had with some of the big names of comedy, like Seinfeld, Cosby and now Crystal. I've also had a couple good talks with Gilbert Gottfried, just not sure if he falls into the "big names" category.
Here's my e-mail to Ellen for today...
Hey Ellen, Something came up and I was wondering if I could borrow 2000 dollars. Thanks.
05/02/2005 Here's today's email that just sent Ellen Degeneres...
Ellen, Do you think that drinking Orange Juice with extra vitamins in it, like Tropicana's Immunity Defense Orange Juice is really worth it? Thanks.
05/04/2005 NBC announced 6 reality shows for this coming summer. They are, in no particular order...
The Biggest Loser - See a fat loser become a slightly less fat loser.
I Want to Be a Hilton - Paris' mother is the host, and I assume she sucks off the contestants.
Here's my e-mail of the day to Ellen...Ellen, I see you had Betty White on the show today. I didn't see it but I was wondering if you asked her if she moved back to St. Olaf or stayed in Miami after the Golden Girls ended.
05/06/2005 Here's my letter to Ellen for today...Ellen, I scored 22 points last night and my team is now 4-0 in our basketball league. That's not a question, just thought you'd like to know.
New York City is expected to have a 3.2 billion dollar surplus this year. Clearly, NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg shouldn't be a politician. He's fixed the budget, crime is down, the city is cleaner, and quality of life is rising. As a comic this really pisses me off. There's nothing funny when things are going well. Damn you Bloomberg!
05/10/2005 We'll start with the Ellen letter of the day... Ellen,
I've noticed you're big on making people's dreams come true. Well, last night I had a dream that I was swimming in chocolate and started drowning until Batman arrived and saved me. Can you make that happen for me in real life?
05/13/2005 Ellen letter of the day… Ellen,
You showing your prom picture just reminded me of my prom. At mine, I was about to have sex for the first time but then the OJ Simpson car chase happened and it blew the whole thing. Sucks, right?
Macaulay Culkin has testified that Michael Jackson didn't molest him. You know you're a child molester when they have to bring in one kid just to say he DIDN'T get molested. Actually, rumor has it that Michael tried to molest Macaulay on many occasions but Macaulay always had an elaborate series of traps set-up and Michael would get a bowling ball dropped on his head or slip on a bunch of marbles.
05/16/2005 I accidently just flushed a copy of the Koran down the toilet this morning. Keep that quiet or there might be riots in Patterson, New Jersey.
05/19/2005 However, I will do an impression of Yoday having sex..."Going to come, I am!"
06/14/2005 Kirstie Alley claims to have lost 35 pounds on Jenny Craig according to the commercial I just saw. In my opinion she looks fatter than ever, which makes me think they fattened her up about 70 pounds, then had her drop 35 pounds. Michael Jackson is not guilty on all charges. He celebrated the verdict by getting drunk at the Santa Monica pre-school. That's really all I can offer up on MJ at the moment. It's sad that money buys justice in this country, but it is what it is.
07/06/2005 I'm currently pitching a show to NBC where regular people get to hunt down NBC executives and murder them in cold blood. The first person to get Jeff Zucker gets a million bucks. Time Warner cable here in NYC is now Carrying AZN Television, "The Network for Asian Americans". This is a real problem going on in America right now, that everyone thinks they need their own channel. The asain channel, the woman channel, the gay channel, the black channel. What's next, a comedy channel?
07/07/2005 Terror is really an amazing tool. It makes nations choose their destiny instead of avoiding it. When America was attacked, we chose to go on the offensive. When Spain was attacked, they chose to retreat. Now England will have their choice, and we'll see what they do. I have a feeling they'll go on the offensive, but Europe is a strange place, and there are many people who think that if you appease the bad guys that they will stop hating you as much.
A month from now Israel is going to pull out of the Gaza Strip. I can't help but think that the same guys who attacked us on 9/11, and the same guys who hit London today, are the same guys who will be thrilled that Israel is leaving because of an unrelenting campaign of terror. I'm not saying that staying just because they will feel rewarded if you leave is enough to stay, but I am wondering if leaving emboldens them to fight even more.
07/15/2005 Hillary thinks that the simulated sex in Grand Theft Auto is pretty much the beginning of the end of human civilization. Of course, co-moralist Joe Lieberman is joining Hillary on this crusade to save humanity as we know it. Somehow I doubt the two of them have ever played the game, or any other game for that matter, but as politicians they obviously feel qualified to tell us why they think we're all messed up.
07/17/2005 If any of that made sense to you then I highly recommend The Andy Milonakis Show on MTV. I have literally no idea what the show is about, but it is based around an overgrown, mildly-obese, childlike moron who does various nonsensical stunts. As I watched in utter horror my roomate turned to me and said...
07/18/2005 Joy Behar - Doesn't take shit from Star Jones. Robot Chicken - I had this idea about 10 years ago, but Seth Green did it first. Good job. Kira Phillips - That smile makes suicide bombings look sorta cute.
07/21/2005 Caught a few minutes of Tucker Carlson's new MSNBC show last night. I've discussed what a bow-tie wearing dork he is before, but now let me also throw in that even without the bow-tie he is still a big dork.
07/27/2005 I watched a new show on the Discovery Channel last night called, "Dirty Jobs with Mike Rowe". The show follows Mike as he goes from various jobs that nobody would want to other jobs that nobody would want. In just this one episode, he plucked golf balls from alligator infested waters, he was a garbage man and he jacked off a horse. Yes, that's right. People are doing this. For a living.
08/01/2005 The ladies of The View are talking about poor Paris Hilton and Nicole Ritchie, who claim not to like each other, yet will do another season of "Simple Life". Hmm, call me a cynic but maybe they are just making up the whole fued just for the free publicity? C'mon Starr Jones, call it like it is! Say allegedly if you have to! File a leagal brief! Eat a piece of cake! Just do something!
08/06/2005 And back to the funny...This week marks the 60th anniversary of the USA dropping the nuclear bomb on Hiroshima. To commemorate the occasion, Iran announced it will continue it's nuclear program and bomb someone "as soon as humanely possible."
08/10/2005 Terrell Owens left Eagles training camp today. WAAAAA! I only make 12 million dollars a year to play football! WAAAAA! I want more money! WAAAAAA! I want more respect! WAAAAA!
08/12/2005 Speaking of Sportscenter, Mario Lopez, better known as AC Slater, is new doing a new segment on Sportscenter called ESPN Hollywood. He is so smiley its ridiculous. Mario, we all know you want to kill people, from Zach Morris to Stuart Scott. Let it go bud, you don't have to smile the whole time. It's offensive.
08/15/2005 Jimmy Kimmel, who hosted the show, is amazingly unfunnny, and will be cancelled any day now. Sara Silverman has no real talent and will continue to suck Jimmy Kimmel's cock for as long as he has a TV show. Adam Corrola also sucked Jimmy Kimmel's dick to further his career. And it was no easy feat because if his giant teeth. Israel is pulling out of Gaza today. Why is it that Jews can't live in a place that is run by Arabs, but Arabs can live in Israel, France, Britian, America and every other country on the planet? Oh yea, the Arabs are backwards, fundamentalist wacko's. I keep forgetting that.
08/26/2005 My first hour on Craigslist yesterday was accidentely searching for jobs in San Franscisco. Considering I hate commuting to the East Side, San Fran would really be pushing it. Kathy Griffin has a new show on Bravo called, "My Life on the D-List". I'm pretty sure once you have a show you are off the D-List. She's probably C-List now. I'm D-List. Oh, who am I kidding, I'm G-List, but I aspire to be D-List. Man, D-List, that'd be so sweet. Okay, gotta go, I've got a lot of work to do. D-List here we come.
09/06/2005 Anyone else think that Bush had Rehnquist killed to get some of the the heat off him for the slow support time in the Gulf Coast? Timing is everything.
09/17/2005 It was with great joy and happiness that when i woke up this morning that I came across "GI Joe: Sigma 6" on Fox 5. I saw the title of the show as it was on a commercial and I anxiously awaited what I would see. Then it happened once again. Japanimation.
09/26/2005 Shouldn't Intelligence Design really be called Unintelligent Design?
09/30/2005 That whole Elian Gonzalez fiasco is back in the news because it all went down five years ago. I said it then and I'll say it now, if a little Mexican boy wants to go to Puerto Rico, I say let him go.
10/06/2005 Fortunately, the guy at the bodega downstairs lent my his metro card and I picked up my roomate's keys. In the past I've had my suspicions that the bodega guy works for al-Queda, but on this day he was a good man.
10/08/2005 Iran's stock market dropped 30% yesterday. Can you imagine what it smells like on the trading floor of the Iran Stock Exchange? Nobody there wears deoderant for God's sake. If you want help to turn it around I'd recommend putting all your money in Allah Body Spray. Women will pull down there burka's as low as their nose if they smell it.
10/11/2005 One night a couple years ago Tom was on the Tonight Show to promote "Castaway." It was right before Chistmas and he was talking about all these toys, such as the Carebears and Power Rangers. I was noticing that some of the stuff he was saying was amazingly close to my material at the time, and he was even saying it pretty much how I was saying it. Then he went into this whole thing about the Tranformers, about how they transform from robots into cars. He ended by singing a version of the Transformers theme song in the voice of Frank Sinatra. Dave, why would Tom Hanks steal your material, and how would he even get it in the first place? Good questions. As you probably know, when any actor goes on one of these shows all the questions/answers and jokes are pre-written. It was very clear to me that Tom was just doing material he had been given. So no, I don't think Tom had any idea what was going on. I think he paid some writer for some material and some writer gave him stolen stuff. It's not the first time it has happened, nor the last time it will happen, it just sucks when it happens to you. I'm pretty sure I know who gave him the material, but that I won't say until there is more worth in telling this story.
10/12/2005 Zucker, who has helped wreck TV by rolling out so many reality shows at the expense of real programming deserves that silver bullet. Yea, maybe it isn't wise for me to say that on here, but it isn't the first time and won't be the last time.
Years ago we sent Zucker "The Anti Show", which we filmed in NBC studios (unknown to him), and he never even bothered to respond to us. That was just one opportunity he had to take a chance on something completely oringinal, edgy and ahead of the curve. Instead he green-lit dozens of awful reality shows and a couple stale sitcoms. Karma is a bitch Jeff, but don't worry, it sounds like you'll be put out of your misery soon.
11/04/2005 I'm sure Apple will find a way to capitalize on this whole porn thing, perhaps by coming out with a new iPod designed specifically for the midget porn afficionado. Speaking of midget porn, I have to be somewhere in 15 minutes. Take care.
11/07/2005 Mike Bloomberg for Mayor of NYC. Yea, he's nerdy. Yea, he's rich. But the city is safe, clean and he even rides the subway sometimes. Anyone who can deal with the smell of the 59th and Lexington stop smell is worth voting for.
11/12/2005 Saw Derailed with Jennifer Anniston last night. Pretty good flick. The moron couple behind me brought their four year old son who kicked my seat constantly and didn't shut up the entire time. I got this close to derailing his graduation to kindergarten, but calmer heads prevailed.
11/16/2005 Michael Jackson got caught walking into a woman's restroom in Bahrain earlier this week. He claimed that it was a simple mistake because he doesn't speak Arabic. It turns out that he thought the sign said, "Horrifically Misfigured Former Pop Stars Who Like to Lick Children's Heads."
12/20/2005 The transit strike is on, and while I don't want to take sides, let me say that the transit workers and their union representatives can go fuck themselves….. I haven't seen so many angry people stuck in traffic since the day before we bombed Baghdad.
submitted by PropertyForward to daverubin [link] [comments]

Why did Spain and Portugal have such a large Jewish population until the Reconquista?

I've read about about the emergence of an Ashkenazi Jewry in the early medieval Rhineland (especially the "Sh-U-M cities") and the small, stable Jewish communities of Rome and Sicily. But the biggest section of the European Jews, and most likely all Jews, were living in Spain and Portugal until the persecution of 1492. Why was this?
I understand that there has been a continuity of Jewish life in Rome and other Italian cities since antiquity, which makes sense because Jews were mostly pushed into urban living and Italy was much more urbanized than the rest of Europe. I also know that those three Rhineland cities were at the heart of the biggest overland trade network in medieval Europe, so Jewish people barred from residing in the countryside could have supported themselves more easily than in other cities.
Iberia seems like an outlier. From what I understand, Spain and Portugal were not part of any great trading networks until the colonial period. While I know that Spain was a major intellectual beacon in the early middle ages, by the time of the Taifas and the early Reconquista, I get the impression that Iberia had lost its significance in the Islamic world and was only marginally connected to the Latin Christian world of mainland Europe. Yet some of the best-known Sephardi Jews, like Maimonides and Benjamin of Tudela, flourished in these last few centuries before their communities were eradicated.
So what happened here? How did Spain come to have such a large Jewish population? Did the general tolerance of Muslim rulers allow Jewish communities to grow in ways impossible in Christendom? Were Spanish Jews not barred from owning and working land like their Ashkenazi co-religionists? Was there mass migration of Jews from other parts of the world into Spain during the Muslim era? Or is this narrative of medieval Islamic tolerance basically an Orientalizing myth?
submitted by Vladith to AskHistorians [link] [comments]

[EPILOGUE] Pax Indica

The Indian Subcontinent in 2050

A timeline of events in the Indian subcontinent between 2035 and 2050.

The Great Indian War (2033-2038)

Rise of DUSS and PRT
Beginning in 2033 and lasting until mid-2038, the Great Indian War was, without a doubt, the bloodiest continental conflict since the Second World War, resulting in the deaths of over sixty seven million people including military casualties and civilian deaths and over two trillion dollars in terms of property damage and instrumental in completely changing the face of both Indian and Asian geopolitics forever. What began as ethnic and socioeconomic strife back in the 20s would spiral into a full-fledged continental war within ten years and while most scholars and historians regard 2033, the year of the declaration of independence of the southern Dravidian states, as the start of the Great Indian War, some argue that the war had begun as early as 2027 in the manner of ethnic and religious pogroms in India, especially targeted towards southern Indians and Muslims. Reaching a wide audience and acquiring great popular support for their separation from India, both the Dravidian Union of Socialist States and the People's Republic of Telangana were successful in keeping their territories under control despite heavy assaults and slowly chipped away at more and more territory; the city of Bengaluru, the tech capital of India, would fall to the DUSS in November 2035, a massive blow to an already deprecated morale in the Indian Army. The fall of the city also led to the Congress, already having been elected by a thin margin, to be voted out and replaced by the BJP although this time under Amit Shah, the assassinated former Prime Minister Modi's personal friend and ally. The civil strife in Maharashtra finally finds a voice in the newly rejuvenated Republican Marathi Congress (formerly the Republican Party of India), championing Marathi nationalism, secularism, anti-casteism, and laissez-faire capitalism with a focus on creating a welfare state. The party does not take up arms, however, and continues with its stance of non-violent resistance. Negotiations regarding increased autonomy with Delhi fail as the Indian economy completely collapses and inflation goes sky high, further cementing the idea of secession among all active groups and in states that had previously remained pro-Delhi as the odds of a return to a 'normal India' shrink away.
Indian GDP (incl. secessionists) in 2035: $6.4 trillion
Indian GDP (incl. secessionists) in 2036: $4.9 trillion
Indian GDP (incl. secessionists) in 2037: $3.7 trillion
The Gandharan Spring
Elsewhere, however, the archrival looks on while lapping up new and old investments and local growth as foreign investment meant for India is siphoned away to Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and even Central America. While civil strife continues in India, an entirely different movement strikes Pakistan - one demanding change, equality, and justice for all. While the Islamic Republic had slowly shied away from its Islamic morals and assumed a more pragmatic approach to world affairs and had significantly benefited from this new policy, it hadn't anticipated a social revolution to begin within its own borders. The thousands of coffee cafes established in its major (and liberal) cities became a breeding ground for new thought while the newfound prosperity through rapid economic development and industrialization led to a mass wave of 'wokeness' among the population. The annual women's march, coffee shop discussions, the emergence of Latin Urdu, and a new wave of Urdu poetry in the newly standardized Latin script became a part of a newly emerging unitary culture that transcended the bounds of ethnic nationalism and culminated into a cultural renaissance as people found new ways to express themselves, their words, and their art. Marches and protests to reduce military spending and the establishment of proper universal healthcare and social security became a norm as the country dived deep into what came to be known as the Gandharan Spring - named so after the ancient scholarly state of Gandhara. Economically, the Pakistani GDP exceeds $1.5 trillion in 2037 as new investments pour in and local industry, both large and small, prosper and the newly built planned city of Şahinpur becomes a major hub of technological innovation in Asia.
Total Collapse
But back in India, war was the only thing on the minds of the common people. Mass migrations across state and international lines further impacted local economies and the Dravidian cause became further ignited with the BJP's return to power, once again sparking ethnic conflict between the citizenry. Pogroms and killings continue as almost every state is plunged into anarchy over hyperinflation, ethnic and religious tensions, and the collapse of the Indian federation. Courts and the judiciary became irrelevant as the Constitution devolved into nothing more than a piece of paper and civil rights eroded away in the name of security and 'national integrity'. The Indian military, by now the only functional organ of the Delhi-based Indian government, becomes plagued with deserters and a collapsed morale among all ranks with nearly all but the staunchest of (Hindu) nationalists unwilling to fight to 'preserve the union'. Popular support for the Indian government is limited only to the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar at this point with almost all other states in active revolt or too preoccupied with anarchy and ethnic, religious, or political unrest. Both the DUSS and PRT have gained strategically important and economically vital territory with the former gaining control of Madurai, Coimabatore, and Kochi port as well as large swathes of countryside in its claimed territory while the latter gained control over Hyderabad, the economic and political capital of Telangana.
But all was not rosy for the secessionists in the south either. With supplies running low and exhaustion high among its ranks, both the DUSS and PRT wanted, nay, needed, a quick end to this war. And that would come albeit not in a way they would've anticipated. In early July, Kashmir rose in uproar. While pro-Pakistani/independence militias had been active in the region since the departure of the British, this new uprising was far more organized and effective and an entire new front was opened up for the Indian government to worry about. This was also the first time the term 'Great Indian War' would be used to describe the civil strife going on in India. In response, the Indian military cracked down hard on the secessionists and news of continued war crimes in Kashmir would not be well-received by the neighbor to the west.
Here's Johnny!
True to its newfound commitment to 'neutrality', the Islamic Republic of Pakistan had remained neutral since the declaration of independence of the two southern secessionist groups. > On the eve of July 21, 2037 one of the few remaining squadrons of the Indian Navy intercepted an arms shipment from Djibouti en route to the southern port city of Kochi which had fallen into the hands of the DUSS and while it had been widely accepted that that country had been involved in this war in some capacity, the capture of the shipment finally sealed the deal for the hot-headed government of PM Amit Shah and the BJP. Although the shipment had decidedly come from Pakistan, the government in Islamabad wholly denied any involvement in the affair and called for 'peaceful dialog' between Delhi and the secessionists. Over the last two decades, the Islamic Republic had begun to care a lot about its international image, reflected in the permanent invitation it received from the United States to the G20, but the BJP, already seething with hatred for the country and holding it responsible for Narendra Modi's assassination all those years ago (that would ultimately snowball into the Great Indian War), would have none of it.
The very next day, the Indian military conducted a strategic surgical strike against a Pakistani military base in Gilgit-Baltistan which it defined as a 'warning shot' for its western neighbor to not interfere in its internal issues. All it did was ignite a national fervor that couldn't be extinguished even with the coldness of the deepest abyss. The three Pakistani soldiers killed in the strike were awarded the Nişan-i-Haider, the highest military award in the country, and Pakistan entered the Great Indian War with a declaration of war against the Republic of India on July 22, 2037.
The End
The initial Indian strike against Pakistan killed three Pakistani soldiers. The counterstrike conduced by the Pakistan Army as its first response killed forty seven Indian soldiers and disabled two Rafale fighter aircraft. But that was only the start.
During the kerfuffle between the two archrivals, major new developments would spring up across the rest of the subcontinent especially in the DUSS and Maharashtra. The Marathi Congress, beefed up with major donations (later revealed to be major Maharasthra-based businessmen such as Ambani and Tata as well as from anonymous accounts owned by REDACTED), took control of key buildings and locations in the state, including the very import Port of Mumbai, and declared independence from India as the Maratha Republic. In the south, ideological drift between the DUSS and PRT led to an end to an otherwise quite beneficial partnership between the two. The same ideological drift would begin to take hold within DUSS as well. Kerala, notable for its high standards of living and prosperity compared to other parts of India, began to wonder if it may be better off on its own just as Telangana had split to form a smaller but ultimately more manageable sovereign state. But the war had now escalated to a degree not initially imagined as the two competing megapowers of the region, India and Pakistan, finally came to a head.
While Pakistan had built up to a parity with its larger and traditionally stronger rival, it was the exhaustion of Indian forces that would give the smaller state the primary advantage early in the war as the fresh and qualitatively superior Pakistan Army blitzkrieged into Kashmir with its tank fleets of high-end Haider main battle tanks and state-of-the-art Griffin III IFVs, capturing Srinagar, Jammu, and the Siachen Glacier within twenty four hours of the declaration of war. Already exhausted in fighting the upstart rebels in the region, the Indian Army personnel stationed in Kashmir quickly resorted to defensive tactics as the invasive force rapidly captured town after town, putting sixty thousand of the ninety thousand strong Indian force under siege within just the first three days of conflict.
To the south, the Pakistan Navy destroyed the Indian naval bases in the state of Gujarat (the last pro-Delhi state on the western seaboard) and deploy a major submarine squadron in the region to deter any harassment from the massively depleted Indian Navy as it made its way south, breaking the blockade deployed against DUSS thus allowing relief aid (and weapons) to once again reach the rebels. But the actual intent of their move south would be revealed with the rapid landings of troops on the many tiny islands that made up the Lakshadweep union territory and the occupation of all government buildings and posts in the archipelago. By the end of the month, the Indian territories of Kashmir and the Lakshadweep islands had both been occupied by the invading Pakistani forces and a shockwave rocked the entire subcontinent to its core. The All India Trinamool Congress declared the independence of 'Kalinga Ganga' - a federation of the Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh to 'oppose the fascist tendencies of the Delhi-based Hindi' with their capital in Kolkata. The Sikhs of Punjab declared the independence of the 'Khalsa' - the Sikh brotherhood worldwide - and called on all Sikhs to return home. In Delhi, Prime Minister Amit Shah handed power over to the military who declared martial law across the country, dissolved the Parliament, and declared the Constitution void. The Maratha Republic took this time to announce Pune, not Mumbai, as the capital of their nascent state.
At this time, cracks within the DUSS also began to show as the state of Kerala announced its separation from the socialist federation, declaring the People's Republic of Keralam, a social democratic state based on the principles established by the Self-Respect Movement and the original Dravidar Kazhagam rather than the European-derived ideology of the DUSS. Elsewhere, the Pakistan Navy crossed by Sri Lanka - where it refueled and restocked - and entered the Bay of Bengal to open up a brand new front in this massive continental war.
The Indian Army attempted five times to break the 'iron wall' - the Pakistan Army's three-thousand strong fleet of M1PK Matin tanks - but failed to make a dent, losing whatever was left of their morale and drive with every failed attempt. Indian formations were ripe targets for the Pakistan Air Force which maintained total air superiority in the war with its advanced aerial fleet of F-35s and AF-1 fifth generation plus fighter aircraft and this support allowed the Pakistanis to break into India proper on January 26, 2038 as they crossed the Punjab and seized control of the state for the newly declared Khalsa while the southern command crossed the Rann and captured all of the Kutch beyond the disputed border at Sir Creek. Already halved by personnel deserting and refusing to follow orders and to defections to the declared secessionist states, the defeated Indian Army was the first to capitulated following Pakistani landings on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the capture of Port Blair, Mayabunder, and Car Nicobar by Pakistani Marines.
The Indian Air Force was the next to follow. Having been defeated in the air, the IAF wouldn't find peace on the ground either as the enemy flew sortie after sortie, wrecking almost every airbase with its advanced platforms such as the F-35 and the AF-1. The defections to DUSS, PRT, Kerala, Maratha Republic, and Kalinga didn't help either and whatever was left of the Indian air fleets was lost in a final sortie over the city of Chandigarh as Pakistani troops crossed into the state of Haryana and came within two hundred kilometres of Delhi.
The last two states to secede from the Union were Goa and Garhwal, the latter of which claimed the northern Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand as their rightful territory while the former declared the small coastal state of Goa as its rightful sovereign territory. With two hundred thousand personnel in Kashmir, one hundred thousand in Gujarat, and about five thousand split between Lakshadeep and Andaman & Nicobar, the Pakistan Army entered Delhi on July 2, 2038 and forced the surrender of the final vestiges of the Indian military high command (and government) thus bringing the Great Indian War to a conclusion.
Treaty of Dharamsala
On August 14, 2038, exactly ninety one years after the independence of the subcontinent from British colonial rule, representatives from all belligerents of the Great Indian War met at the Himalayan capital of the newly-declared sovereign state of Garhwal to sign a treaty to decide the future of the Indian subcontinent and to ensure that this war would be the last of its kind, at least in the Indian subcontinent. The following are the salient features of the Treaty of Dharamsala.
  • The Republic of India will be dissolved and its membership in all international organizations voided.
  • All nuclear weapons and facilities to manufacture more nuclear weapons will be dismantled.
  • No new sovereign state in the subcontinent will be regarded as the lawful successor state to the Republic of India and will seek memberships on their own merit.
  • All new sovereign states will commit to the ideals of democracy, justice, and freedom.
Besides these salient points, all representatives set out to solve any territorial disputes that might cause tensions in the future. Pakistan claimed full sovereignty over the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat. Garhwal claimed full sovereignty over the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Khalsa (Republic) claimed full sovereignty over the Indian state of Punjab and the union territory of Chandigarh. Kalinga Ganga claimed full sovereignty over the states of West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Jharkhand. Kamarupa claimed full sovereignty over the Seven Sister States. The Maratha Republic claimed full sovereignty over the state of Maharashtra. The DUSS claimed full sovereignty over the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka as well as Puducherry, Karaikal, and Yanam districts of the union territory of Puducherry. Keralam claimed full sovereignty over the state of Kerala as well as the district of Mahe. PRT claimed full sovereignty over the state of Telangana. Nepal claimed sovereignty over the state of Sikkim. And finally, Gangarashtra claimed full sovereignty over the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar as well as the union territories of Delhi, Daman and Diu, and Dadra and Nagarhaveli.
Helpful map of the Treaty of Dharamsala

Rebuilding and the Mandala (2039-2044)

The conclusion of the Great Indian War completely changed the face of the subcontinent and left a permanent mark on world history. The dissolution of India left its archrival Pakistan as the new regional power in South Asia, further contributing to its rise as a major power. Outmatching any of the successor states of its once powerful rival in all relevant terms, the leadership in Islamabad instead adopted a different approach towards cementing its role as the leader of a new subcontinent. Instead of going the route of Russia and forcing its less powerful partners into being subservient subjects as seen in the USSR, the leadership instead looked towards Germany's role in the European Union not just as a leadership role but as a bonafide future for the Indian subcontinent. But first, it had to solve the rapidly rising issue back home.
In 2039, the Pakistani economy crossed the $2 trillion mark, solidifying its position as the largest economy in South Asia and among the largest in all of Asia as it overtook the severely damaged economy of South Korea following the end of the Second Korean War. Already being a 'permanent invitee' to the G20, it was also awarded India's now-vacant seat in the forum. But the renaissance that had sprung up during the Great Indian War had now become more than a social idea to be amused by. This Gandharan Spring had become the most important issue at home, inviting comparisons to the civil rights and counter-culture movements of the United States in the twentieth century. Pakistani cinema and television turned away from romantic dramas and towards something of more substance, tackling complex issues in a conservative, Islamic society such as drug use and pre-martial sex, women's empowerment and feminism, anti-state and anti-government feature films, and even films and dramas openly based on the Hindu heritage of the nation. Urdu literature, this time in the Latin script, saw a renaissance of its own and several instances of prose and poetry saw global success, works based on heritage and social issues rather than Islamic glory and prestige. Madrasahs became empty as parents chose functional skill over Islamic jurisprudence, attracting the ire of the mullahs who denounced the 'ever increasing degeneration' of the nation. But this was much bigger than them. The newly annexed territories of Jammu and Kashmir and the Andamans had brought in a, albeit small, but influential population of Hindus into the fold and they assimilated into this new Gandharan culture with ease.
Elsewhere, the Great War had left the rest of the subcontinent in a sorry state. Mass immigration and uncontrolled inflation had broken local economies while warfare had taken a severe toll on infrastructure. As relief, Islamabad organized the Hindustan Fund - a locally raised sum to help the broken economies of post-war India to once again find their footing and become functional sovereign states instead of going the route of Afghanistan and becoming burdens. Of course, such a task could never be accomplished by Pakistan alone and while the state did deliver about $88 billion in aid to the post-war states of the subcontinent over five years, substantial aid from the European Union, the United States, and China was significant in rebuilding these broken states. It is estimated that the total aid offered to these economies was in excess of $500 billion, enough to lay a groundwork on which to build new foundations for new states.
In 2043, the Pakistani economy crossed $3 trillion and accounted for almost half of the entire economy of the Indian subcontinent. But the Gandharan Spring had reached it breakout point and soon enough, the state would need to make some very crucial decisions.
On January 1, 2044 about forty million people across the country conducted what would come to be known as the Great Gandhara March, this time demanding significant decreases in military spending, a strong and robust healthcare and social security system, equality and liberty regardless of race and religion or any other personal metric, and a full transparent democratic system, calls that were then addressed personally by the state leadership and would be answered in the following two months.
On March 21, 2044 the state conducted a mass referendum to answer a singular question, threatened by a mass exodus of the younger, more progressive caucus of the People's Party if the demands were not addressed.
"Should Pakistan retain Islam as its official religion?
The answer was a resounding seventy eight percent no with an almost eighty five percent turnout. But this would only open the floodgates to a complete and total overhaul of the country. A second referendum would be held the next month asking the question,
"What should Pakistan's official name be?"
[ ] Islamic Republic of Pakistan
[ ] People's Islamic Republic of Pakistan
[ ] Republic of Pakistan
With eighty four percent of all votes choosing the final option, the official name of the country was changed once again to the name it had been awarded with the Constitution of 1962: the Republic of Pakistan. More questions were asked in five more referendums as Sharia-inspired laws were removed the penal code including the hotly-contested and controversial blasphemy law (which was amended to include all religion with a dramatically lighter punishment rather than being completely removed). Laws made through the controversial Hudood Ordinance of former military dictator Zia ul-Haq were completely scrubbed and the death penalty finally abolished as the country came more and more into its form as a modern nation-state.
In the Indian subcontinent, the gracious foreign aid brought the broken economies of the new states back to life as life began to settle into a normal routine once again but everyone knew that things would never, ever be the same as they once were. Several monuments were erected to honor the sixty seven million killed in senseless warring and brutality and all Indian leaders vowed to never allow a repeat of what had occurred again. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was redefined and rebuilt from the ground up to allow a better and more productive platform to settle disputes and to deter any future wars between new or old Indian states. A new age of cooperation would take over the subcontinent as nearly all states, regardless of ideology, became willing allies or at least established warm and cordial relations with one another, especially Pakistan and Gangarashtra. With the latter still being seen by some as the natural (if not recognized) successor state of the Republic of India as well as the strongest among all new country in the subcontinent, it was natural for the two to work towards establishing a regional environment conductive towards peace and dialogue and lead by example. With Gangarashtra toeing the line, it became quite easy for the modern Pakistani state to ensure the loyalties of other new states both to itself and to one another as it formulated a new plan to formalize the future of the region and to guide it towards a vision of peaceful cooperation, development, and shared dignity.

Indian Union (2045-2050)

Treaty of Panjim (2041)
Post-war India was not that different from post-war Europe. Both destroyed by a dangerous ideology, it was necessary for all peoples to work together to ensure that such an event could never take place again. To accomplish this, the Europeans established several commissions and organizations to negate the extreme nationalism that had ravaged Europe. European integration was seen as the antidote to such an event occurring again and the same was done with post-war India. It was easy to point out the Hindu nationalist ideology as the force that tore the subcontinent to shreds and caused the deaths of almost seventy million people. To counter the ideology and to further promote, representatives from all successor states met at the Goan capital of Panjim in 2041 to discuss the future of the Indian subcontinent. It was identified that while being proud of your nation and heritage is no crime, its devolution into hatred for other peoples is an ideology that must be combated at all cost. As part of this treaty, all Indian states agreed to curb all extreme nationalist parties and groups and denounce unwarranted religious and ethnic aggression both publicly and in their actions, leading to major purges across the region but especially in Pakistan (which continued to weaken the military-mullah consortium), the DUSS, Gangarashtra, and the Maratha Republic.
Treaty of Kandy (2042)
An year after the conference at Panjim, the Indian leaders met once again to do something of more substance and significance, this time in the Sri Lankan city of Kandy. Discussing further integration in the Indian subcontinent, several proposals were put forward including a bid to host a major sports tournament together (recommended by Maharashtra), to invite all leaders of the G-20 to visit the Indian states (recommended by Kalinga Ganga), to create a legislative assembly - an Indian parliament, per se - to sign off on any new laws established by any Indian state (recommended by Pakistan) but finally it was a suggestion from the representatives of Keralam that all other attendees agreed upon. A university to be established anywhere in the subcontinent, ultimately agreed upon to be in the city of Alappuzha in Keralam, to focus entirely on Indian studies including history, geopolitics, economics, and to provide training to students who will embody the values of unity and peace among all Indian peoples. Funded by all Indian states (except for Garhwal and Kamarupa which cited financial issues), the university would be established later than year with construction on the urban campus completing in early 2044. The institute would train future leaders, diplomats, and bureaucrats from all corners of the Indian subcontinent.
Treaty of Lahore (2044)
With the College of Indian Studies in full swing and the economies of all Indian states now rebounding from the damage suffered during the Great Indian War, leaders from the Indian states met once again to discuss further integration, this time in the second largest city of Pakistan - Lahore. A historical capital of several empire that once spanned the entirety of the subcontinent, the millennia old history of the city offered a great insight into the long and varied history of the Indian peoples. This was also where the idea for an Indian Council, created to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in the Indian subcontinent, would be conceived and later brought to fruition which would establish the foundations upon which the future Indian Union would be built.
The Indian Council would become an official United Nations Observer party in 2047, an year after its establishment with the following members.
Country Capital
Pakistan Islamabad
Gangarashtra New Delhi
Khalsa Chandigarh
Garhwal Dharamsala
Kalinga Ganga Kolkata
Nepal Kathmandu
Bhutan Thimphu
Bangladesh Dhaka
Kamarupa Guwahati
Maratha Pune
Telangana Hyderabad
Goa Panjim
DUSS Bengaluru
Keralam Thiruvananthapuram
Sri Lanka Colombo
Maldives Male
Treaty of Karachi (2046)
Meeting in the largest and wealthiest city in the Indian subcontinent, the conference at Karachi would establish what would become the Indian Union in 2049. At the conference, especially called by the leaders of Pakistan, Gangarashtra, and the Maratha Republic, all members of the Indian Council would decide to establish the Indian Cooperative Council (ICC) - a customs union between all members of the Indian Council to promote further economic cooperation between all Indian states. All major languages of the Indian subcontinent such as Hindustani, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, and Sindhi were recognized as official languages while English was declared the working language for all official business within the ICC. Two major organs of the council were established - the Indian Commission and the Indian Parliament. A third organ was created with the annexation of the Indian Council into the ICC with the first major amendment to the ICC charter through the Treaty of Delhi (2047).
Treaty of Kolkata (2049)
The second amendment to the ICC created (or brought back) the Indian Rupee, originally pegged to the Pakistani Rupee due it being the strongest currency among the sixteen member states of the ICC. The currency was adopted in Pakistan, Khalsa (Republic), Garhwal, Gangarashtra, Kalinga Ganga, Kamarupa, and the Maratha Republic the year it was introduced and by the Maldives and Telangana in 2050. Increased trade made possible through the single currency and the liberalization of trade between the Indian states led to rapid economic growth among all member states and further improvements in terms of HDI and per capita income.
Treaty of Visakhapatnam (2050)
The name of the Indian Cooperative Council was changed to the Indian Union (IU) and the three organs were located permanently instead of revolving annually. The Indian Council was relocated to the city of Dharamsala, the Indian Commission was relocated to the city of Panjim, while the Indian Parliament was relocated to the city of Alappuzha in Garhwal, Goa, and Keralam respectively. Encompassing agreements such as single market, common currency, customs union, free trade and movement, and a mutual defense treaty, the Indian Union has the potential to become one of the key players in global geopolitics and affairs if it manages to remain stable for at least the next ten years.

Peace in India (2050-?)

While it may seem like a little early to make such statements, the successful integration of post-war Indian subcontinent into a function Indian Union has led many to claim that we may finally have established peace in the most populous region in the world. But the sky's only the limit and there's quite a lot that is still to be done.
Future Milestones
To remain functional and retain its relevance, any organization must continue to evolve with time and conquer new frontiers for the prosperity of its stakeholders. While the Indian Union is a promising step towards a peace Indian subcontinent, many have already identified key milestones the union must tackle together including a unified space research organization that will be discussed at the special conference at Allapuzha in 2051, the expansion of the unified currency to all members of the Indian Union, and the possible expansion of the IU to include new members such as Myanmar and Afghanistan, both of whom have expressed strong interest in joining the union. But for now, Pax Indica has set in and how long that may last is anyone's guess.
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Western culture has become weak and complacent in general. Real struggles are ignored and selfishness has won. I've put my opinion, but in the text there is a link of something happening in every sub-saharannien countries, yet I've asked many people if they knew about this and nearly all said no.

I live in Europe currently, I was born here and my father is native to it. My mother is African and 6-7 months after my birth, they left to my mother's native country as my dad's work brought him there (at the time, he was a doctor without borders). I've been living in Europe now for the past 4 years prior to that I was in Africa. My childhood was basically me and family moving from one region to another where natural disasters, outbreaks and not large but enough conflict occurred. Always under the careful watch of my mother's family or herself due to the surrounding dangers like child sacrifices and others... I didn't know of this till my later stages of my teens ( a link for the curious ones in here) The country I was brought up from is messed up. The government doesnt care about anyone, the leading political party has kept power since the civil war by means of corruption, political assassination and systematic destruction of the main opposition, which controls the northern part of the country. By using military and police to attack their headquarters and political members houses and it has spiralled out of control by even allowing and not confronting the northern threat (Islamic terrorist in the very north of the country) leaving the northern tribes to fend for themselves. I thought living here would be better, but what I see people complaining about everything which to me is insignificant, government oppression, racism, living standards etc. But to me, in my eyes, they hold no basis for arguments. Their lives are way better than any of my family members lives back home, my older brothers life back in Africa is nothing in comparison even to the most so called oppressed people/person in Europe or the US. I grew up dreaming of one day living in the US, home of the brave and the free. Democracy and capitalism at its best, you keep what you make. The defenders of the world's freedom. I have utmost respect for the United States, I envy anybody from there and would trade my life, childhood experiences with anyone from there no matter their social, and financial status because I know it would be largely better than the majority of the people I grew up with, known and lost.
I was molded by a society where death, violence, oppression (of mix coloured people is real, like I laughed so hard when I heard a year ago or so that racism is only white/brown people and black can't be racist haha) are all daily occurrences. Maybe this made me stronger than the norm (mentally) or just made me ignorant to empathy but being the sort of the silent type of person that I am. I don't usually voice my opinion to the masses, even writing this here has taken a lot of effort, thinking, rethinking thank god it's anonymous. In continuation.
There is a big margin of difference between living somewhere where a government cares about you (even if it's a little) compared to somewhere, where they don't and if you share your opinion that doesn't go with what the party beliefs, you are oppressed. It's a shame because with internet, social media and news being so prominent in our countries (EU and US) I expected more than social justice where the loudest is correct. People with these means should inform themselves better and look at their way of life before advocating and defending political systems that have never worked. The worst is people actually listen to stars and Hollywood people who talk about climate change (yet take their private jets to France for a weekend) who talk about socialism and communism (yet they have so much money most of us will probably never see the same amount in two lifetimes)
People have become weak, justifying their lives by acknowledging their victim-hood and expecting a hand out in life. Where have the time of individuality gone, with today's society and social media influence people have become sheep either agreeing with everyone else or remaining silent and somehow governments are changing because of a small percentage of people. Now don't get me wrong, I support individual freedom no matter your sexe or sexual preferences. But it seems like we would prefer to create a monstrous government that could become dangerous than to just acknowledge the problem is from within and not external. Racists, sexists, rapists etc are a small minority of the people not everyone whether they be man or woman. We shouldn't oppress anybody in our society because of a few monsters out there. Especially not by helping horrible political system taking power. That will hurt everyone including yourself.
(English is not my first language so there may be some mistakes there and there and some weirdly made sentences)
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Political Progressivism

It is said that the two subjects which ought to be avoided in polite conversation are religion and politics. Furthermore, within Christianity, there is often an understandable desire to transcend the politics of the day: politics, by the very nature of the craft, involves compromise and gets very dirty in deal making; furthermore, no political platform fully embodies God’s purposes in Christ, and politicians invariably fall short of upholding what God would have upheld in Christ in every respect. At the same time, Christians in America will invariably be called upon to engage with all sorts of ideas, philosophies, plans, and policies prevalent in American political discourse as members of this representative republic; thus, however Christians engage with politics, they ought to do so in ways which bring the lordship of Jesus to bear, and Jesus ought to be glorified and manifest in how they speak of politics and politicians (Ephesians 4:29, Philippians 1:27, Colossians 3:17). We thus do well to consider the broad trends in political discourse and how they relate to what God has made known in Jesus.
The vast majority of modern American political discourse takes place within the general confines of philosophical liberalism: a commitment to free speech, freedom of individuals, the fundamental equality of everyone, a commitment to the rule of law, free markets and free trade, freedom of religion, and a primarily secular posture from the government. Within this commitment to philosophical liberalism we presently see three major political postures: progressivism, conservatism, and libertarianism.
Those most often deemed as “liberals” in twenty-first century American political discourse come from the “social liberal” position and are now more likely to be deemed as “progressive.” As the name would denote, political progressives maintain great confidence in the ability of society to accomplish change to enhance the integrity and quality of life for its citizens through political means. To this end, political progressives have few qualms with using the coercive power of the government to reduce discrimination and inequality, to limit corporate power, to empower labor, and to provide for a social safety net for the disabled, elderly, and poor. Political progressives remain very skeptical of and resistant to government involvement in the realm of sexuality, desiring for the government to take a “hands off” posture in terms of regulations regarding sexual conduct and contraception (save for imperatives regarding the funding for contraception). The vast majority of political progressives maintain a pro-choice position on abortion; many who used to advocate for abortion to be “safe, legal, and rare” are beginning to exalt more in abortion, and are less morally bothered by the practice. Political progressives often prove suspicious of military endeavors and the modern police state; they are developing a more robust antiracist posture, and tend to emphasize the weaknesses, limitations, and failures of the past with a view to correcting them for the future. Dissent and critique remain potent aspects of patriotism among political progressives. Many political progressives are wary of religion in general, and of Christianity in particular, associating Christianity with the establishment and maintenance of white supremacy and patriarchy of the past few hundred years; members of less popular religions, such as Judaism, Islam, and eastern beliefs, tend to not be so strongly subjected to critique. Marxist critique of capitalism is taken as given among most progressives; a few have more confidence in Marx’s solutions than is warranted. Confidence that all such things will lead to a betterment of society holds together all of these views.
Many Christians today believe progressivism is entirely contrary to the purposes of God in Christ. Such goes beyond what is written and represents a partisan posture more than a godly one. In terms of policy many aspects of political progressivism can run afoul of what Christians must hold firmly to in Jesus: Christians cannot endorse elective abortion as good or honoring God’s purposes for life, and same-sex sexual behavior remains condemned in Christ (Psalm 139, Romans 1:18-32, 1 Corinthians 6:9-11). On the other hand, God does expect the government to reward good conduct and punish evil conduct, and political progressives are right to point out how oppressed and marginalized groups have often been denied justice, and some among more privileged groups have not been punished for the evil they have done (cf. Isaiah 1:10-17, Romans 13:1-7, James 5:1-6). The equality of each person before God ought to mean equality of each person before the government and the law of the land, and these are premises for which it is right to stand (Galatians 3:28). The impulse to provide for the poor and ill historically has found its origin in the imperatives of the Gospel in Matthew 25:31-46.
The recent antipathy among political progressives toward those who practice the Christian faith is a tragic irony considering the very religious origins of progressivism. The drive to reform society for the better is a continual trend in Western Christendom for the better part of the last millennium; the Progressive Era in American history came as the fruit from the efforts of those advocating the social gospel and others whose faith motivated them toward societal change; the Civil Rights Movement of the middle of the last century was explicitly rooted in the Christian witness of the equality of all in the sight of God, and sustained by Black Christians. Even though modern political progressivism is extremely secular, its energy comes from this heritage and very religious motivations and inclinations.
The main challenge of political progressivism, however, is in its fundamental conceit: the belief that society can progress or improve. As Christians we must continue to confess the presence of ancestral sin and the continued corruption of the creation, the cyclical nature of history, and human limitations and weaknesses: some things might change for the better, but other things will change for the worse (Ecclesiastes 1:9, Romans 5:12-21, 8:17-23). Not everything hailed as “progress” has made things better for humanity: as we have improved in our technology, health, and quality of life, we have also become more alienated from one another and less communal in outlook. Progressives themselves would see the changes in our climate as an unfortunate result of the technological progress we have made. Everything comes at a cost; “progress” in one area might lead to “regression” in another area, and the law of unintended consequences remains live and active. It proves all too easily to question everything and go beyond what is right, appropriate, or sensible in what one would like to change. Furthermore, it is one thing to see the problems and difficulties in society, and even to propose some possible solutions; it is quite another to invest the energy necessary to fully address the problems, and additional government bureaucracy can make things worse as much as it may provide some assistance. We cannot assume or expect that various changes will ultimately lead to “progress”: we can advocate for changes while recognizing that they will make life in the world different, perhaps better in some ways, but also possibly worse in others. In this way the aspirations of progressivism are continually frustrated, and ever will be until the Lord Jesus returns.
At the same time, how many of us have benefited greatly from the various changes made in society over the past century in the name of such reform and progress? The impulse to change is not always wrong; many things do need to be changed in society so it might be made healthier. Jesus is glorified when changes are made which allow for greater human flourishing in justice and righteousness. But not all changes are good; changes which devalue life, alienate people from one another, and deny the glory and majesty of God dishonor our Creator and malign His righteousness and justice, and His judgment will not be idle. As Christians, let us affirm what is good and advocate for it while resisting that which is evil, and honor God in Christ!
submitted by deverbovitae to u/deverbovitae [link] [comments]

FC Protip and FAQ of the day 4/28/2020: How to handle CORONAMANIA/HOLY FUCKING SHITBALLS Gun Buying Hysteria for 2020

ALRIGHT SNOWFLAKES. Listen up. You're special and unique and your mommy loves you very much and if you just applied yourself I'm sure you'd go real far (as if that's somehow a compliment). But guns are guns and this year we have a number of factors going into Q2 that everyone should be aware of if they haven't spent the past 10 years under some goddamn mother fucking rocks.
I'm FC, I got into guns right after high school. I saw it all. I saw AL GORE GONNA TAKE OUR GUNS. Then I saw JOHN KERRY GONNA TAKE OUR GUNS. Then I saw the biggest fear being GEORGE W BUSH GONNA AWB OUR GUNS, and after that I saw the biggest fear being Barack "The Islamic Shock" Obama. I've been in the gun business for OVER A FUCKING DECADE AND I HAVE SEEN IT ALL. There are a few constants every year even if you take the election out of the equation, and the whole goddamn coronamania is not helping.
So, since that's not helping, I'm here to help and to tell you meatwads what to expect.
This is what happens EVERY FUCKING PANIC. It happened after Sandy Hook in 2013 most recently, it happened in drips and drabs after San Bernadino, Columbine, etc but as of recent the insanity is all being driven by people fearing crime and lawlessness. THERE IS NOTHING DIFFERENT ABOUT THIS TIME THAN LAST TIME. Last time was legislative fear driving everything out of stock, this time is actual fear driving everything out of stock.
Times like these are where gun dealers like me pay the bills. Any gun dealer worth their salt is doing double/triple/quadruple the business they were doing around Christmastime.
Retailers order heavy from wholesalers for Q1. This because we get discounts at buying shows and distributor shows in January to meet demand for tax season. For most Americans, when they do their taxes they get a substantial refund. Therefore, they usually spend that money on guns and ammo. THIS CLEARS OUT THE WHOLESALE CHANNEL. THE WHOLESALE CHANNEL DOES NOT REPLENISH QUICKLY. Stack Coronamania on top of that plus a $1200 Trumpbux check and if you're buying now, you are tardy to the motherfucking party.
Wholesalers run out of stuff for days/weeks/months on end on a NORMAL basis. NORMAL. You know, that word that described our lives 8 weeks ago? That gun that you've been thinking about? I'm not telling you to run to your local retailer and buy it immediately. I AM telling you IT IS PROBABLY ALREADY GONE.
That's actually a lie. There's warehouses across the country, 12 of them from my vendors in Sauk Rapids, Billings, Hamlet, Chatanooga, Prescott, Greensboro, Dallas/FW, Shreveport, Baton Rouge, Rochester, Sparta, Birmingham and Minneapolis with plenty of ammo in them that will sell you as much ammunition as you'd like. As long as you're not picky.
That's great FC! Get me some 38 special and some 9mm....
FC: WHOA! Didn't you hear what I said? I said as long as you're not picky.
Okay fine, I'm not picky. Can you get me some ammo?
FC: Sure thing. How much 35 remington, 6.5 creedmoor, 6.5 grendel, 32ACP, 338LM, 357 Sig or 10mm would you like?
A joke I love to tell people is that if they went to the Olive Garden and they ran out of pasta people would laugh and never go back because what kind of restaurant runs out of pasta? That can't happen! Guess what? In the firearm industry: It can happen, it does happen and it will happen EVERY YEAR AROUND CHRISTMAS. It happens EVERY TIME THE WHOLE WORLD GETS STUPID like after Sandy Hook and after San Bernadino and after Columbine. They say it's different this time. No, it's not.
You may think a Glock 19 Gen 4 MOS is an easy gun to buy, - like this dude ( ) but EVERY FUCKING CHRISTMAS we run out of Glock 19's. And right now it's fucking worse than Christmas! I can guarantee you you will see an empty shelf on the hot stuff for the foreseeable future. Especially since I'm talking to a lot of my vendors and they're all telling me the same thing. The convo goes like this
FC: Hey Billy, how bad is it?
Billy: You remember Sandy Hook?
FC: Yeah
Billy: Like that but about 20 percent worse.
Here's what we're dealing with right now:
What this means: The wholesale channel is not as complete as it typically is. It's fucking EMPTY. This is going to put a crunch on ANYTHING that's not in stock at your local dealer. If it's in stock at your local dealer, great! If it's not in stock at your local dealer and it's in the vendor warehouse - it is anywhere from 3-4 days to 3-4 WEEKS to get picked and shipped. They are STILL that far behind on picking and packing orders. One large wholesaler shut down their warehouse for 2 weeks due to covid. What's this mean? It's gonna take them a month to get caught up. And dealers are putting in new orders EVERY HOUR OF EVERY DAY.
ELECTION SEASON: We got an election in about 6 months.
What this means: Anything black rifle is going to be tough to get for the foreseeable future. Stripped lowers are tough to find presently. 223 and 556 is equally hard to find. Bulk 9mm? It's impossible. Anything tacticool is going to be tough to locate.
I cannot speak for everyone but this is my THEORY. I may be wrong for all you know, I may be right.
Trump victory: People are going to clear the shelves. Dealers MAY raise prices in light of new demand.
Biden victory: People are going to clear the shelves. Dealers WILL raise prices in light of new demand.
If you want to buy into this demand aka a reliving of 2008/Sandy Hook - you will pay through the nose. I'll be perfectly honest. I would not pay the prices I'm selling guns and ammo for. You will not get it back any time soon. When I opened my door in 2010 after spending a lot of time behind the counter slinging guns at a pawn shop, I had people wanting to trade stuff in they bought the day after Obama won "Just in case" and they overpaid BIGTIME.
This time is no different. The years change, the event changes, but the business side stays the same.
If you want to be part of this mass thundering herd, go ahead. I HIGHLY advise against it. If you are fearing a legislative shift or mass panic and should already have prepared for such a scenario.
Should demand ramp up going into/after the election, I WILL raise prices as will others. This is because even with a Trump win we have.......
CHRISTMAS/HANUKKAH/TET/RAMADAN/KWANZAA SEASON: This gets me every year. I will inevitably get a call from a woman who ends up wanting a gun that I could not get the first 11 months out of the year and she expects it a week before Christmas. Because I can just call it in and order it and its here!
The supply chain does not work this way. I can deal with stupid. I can deal with unrealistic. If you are stupid enough to call me wanting a S&W M&P 2.0 with a laser a week before Christmas, I'm going to sell it to you for $875+ tax so PLAN THE FUCK AHEAD. I said earlier that I run out of Glock 19's EVERY CHRISTMAS. No matter how many I order, I run out. GET WHAT YOU WANT FIGURED OUT AHEAD OF TIME. HAVE DEALERS PUT YOU ON WAITING LISTS. PLAN AHEAD IN OCTOBENOVEMBER SO YOU DO NOT GET BLINDSIDED.
Ammo, Mags, etc - all stuff you can't shop for in the meantime either. On hard to find guns, magazines can be very problematic. This is why it is important to PLAN AHEAD. If you find that unicorn and you want it and it is reasonably priced, take it home right away and hide it in the crawl space. Don't expect it to be back in stock if your dealer runs out.
Some retailers use Black Friday as loss leaders to get you in the door. I don't do this sort of thing. Margins suck as it is. If you see what you want on a Black Friday ad - JUMP ON IT. Get all your crap done before December. I'm telling you this because every year things get stupid. EVERYTHING IN THE WHOLESALE CHANNEL RUNS OUT. Even when you deal with 12 distributors like I do, it can be very difficult to manage supply chain logistics. This means more work for me and more markup to you because of it.
Weather is not a joke. I am 100% serious about this. Fedex routes every overnight/2day package through Memphis. UPS does the same through Louisville.
Should there be massive snowstorm development in these area, the supply chain GRINDS TO A FUCKING HALT. It does not slow down, it STOPS. I have had dozens of guns stuck at the hub waiting for the weather to clear in the summertime due to thunderstorms. Large amounts of snow can and will do the same thing. If you tell your dealer to have that special gun for your dad overnight express on December 21 for delivery December 24 and there's a snowstorm headed towards Memphis, you're not getting it. You might not get it until New Years. This is a serious problem. People do not understand Christmas logistics. UPS package volume TRIPLES. Lower your expectations. PLAN IN ADVANCE.
Oh, and that delivery guarantee? It gets suspended every year due to package volume. What this means is that package you paid overnight service for on the 20th for delivery on the 21st - has no guarantee of getting there on the 21st, nor do you have a way to get your money back for it not being delivered overnight. Welcome to Christmas supply chain logistics.
BACKGROUND CHECKS This is not a joke either. Call volumes to get background checks done increases exponentially. A background check that takes 5 minutes in July takes 45-60 minutes during any of the three seasons above.
Some things you can do to avoid lengthy background checks:
Know what you want, pay for the gun, leave and come back. You can always come back later in the day.
Sometimes the system goes down. This is not the dealer's fault. Everyone is out of business. Fill out the form, leave your info. Come back later.
You can do other shopping/errands in the meantime but TRY TO MAKE THE GUN PURCHASE FIRST. If you are planning other things aka "Okay, I'll just pop in and buy this gun and I'll be out in 15 minutes - just in time to get Timmy from his santa photos!" - GUESS WHAT? TIMMY IS GOING TO BE STRANDED AT THE MALL WITH DRUNK SANTA AND HE WILL NEED YEARS OF INTENSIVE THERAPY.
DO NOT BUY ON A FRIDAY, SATURDAY OR SUNDAY. SATURDAY IS THE BUSIEST DAY OF THE WEEK FOR MOST FIREARM RETAILERS. Show up first thing in the morning on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday. If you cannot do so, BEFORE 5PM on a weekday is better than after 5PM.
BRING YOUR FIREARM RETAILER CASH. Preferably covered in body glitter and hooker sweat. You will get a better deal 99/100 times. If you cannot bring cash, do not bring a checkbook it takes too damn long. Take your plastic, make sure you have a wide credit limit and be prepared to pay the convenience charge.
Now, lets go on to the FAQ.....
Is insert website here reputable
Listen here meatwad. You didn't own a gun or ammo 1 month ago and now you're going HEY EVERYWHERE IS OUT OF STOCK IS X PLACE REPUTABLE. Let me EXPLAIN something to you. You put an order in. They might or might not get to it quickly. They might or might not ship it quickly. They might or might not give you what you want. And that's A PROBLEM BETWEEN YOU AND THE CREDIT CARD COMPANY WHEN YOU FILE A DISPUTE/CHARGEBACK FOR MERCHANDISE NOT DESCRIBED. Stop wasting the time of everyone here BECAUSE YOU DON'T KNOW HOW TO FUCKING SHOP.
The time to buy guns and ammo was a long time ago. You are tardy to the party. Stop wasting all our time with your inexperience.
But FC, what's the problem?
Allow me to elaborate on the problem. I'm going to let Brad Pitt (he's SO dreamy) fill in for me.
You don't have to watch the whole thing, but that really puts it into perspective. You have people with Trumpbux, tax refunds, genuine fear of society collapsing ALL BUYING GUNS AND AMMO AT THE SAME TIME. That's putting an enormous strain on the supply chain. Everyone who is buying right now is getting scraps. They are getting what's left. And that's not much.
Your lack of money is not my problem. If you can't plan in advance, you're going to pay more if there is still a run on product. Period. Sorry if you didn't budget accordingly.
This is a list of my guns my husband wants! What should I get him?
Lady, shut the fuck up. Stop wasting my time. Just ask him and tell me what you want me to order. I've got other customers to help.
This is a list of the internet suggested. What should I buy?
Whatever's in stock
We'll see. There is the potential for a perfect storm here with Crazy uncle Joe and angry uncle Andrew and I'm telling you all the writing is on the wall. To be forewarned is to be forearmed.
I love you too.
submitted by FCattheKFC to guns [link] [comments]

“Asians have never enslaved black people”

[warning: antiblack slur, antiblackness, racism against south Asians and south East Asians] I hope at least one person reads this without a dismissive attitude. Please don’t call me a sell out or suggest I’m not azn since the age + username of this account is enough proof that I’m Bengali.
The rhetorical questions asked in the “I support BLM but...” shows me that that particular person didn’t actually research for the answers to those questions. If you do not remember, those questions were saying that because Asians unlike white people did not partake in the same systems of oppression against black people, we are not required to support BLM. However, there are many flaws wrong with that argument, but I will only address the titular sentiment implied by those questions.
“Asians have never enslaved Black people.”
The siddis of the Indian subcontinent are an Afro-Asian diaspora with multiple pasts and presents which you will learn if you take the time to read this article. Scholars pose theories that Siddhis arrived to South Asia by trade routes from East Africa. However, Siddhis did not only arrive as traders and sailors. Many of them were in fact the very commodities who were traded as domestic slaves and military conscripts during the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. Already existing institutions and markets in North Africa supplied wealthy Muslim Arabs of the Ottoman Empire and other parts of Arabia with African slaves. These African slaves would then be imported to to islands in the Indian Ocean and to the Indian subcontinent. “Until the early 20th century, these broad patterns [of slave trading] were affected by the ebb and flow of local powers and trading networks, the continuing spread of Islam, the changing fortunes of empires (in North Africa, Egypt, the Middle East, Turkey, Abyssinia, Persia, and India), and fluctuating demand for other international goods, from gold, cloth, and ivory to ostrich feathers, cloves, and sugar.”
The siddhis are far from the only African diasporas in Asia much less in the Indian subcontinent alone who have ancestors that were enslaved Africans. aznidentity claims to be a platform for pan-asian experiences, histories, and identities. By using broad overarching statements such as “Asians did not enslave Black people” you are not only erasing the complicity of us South Asians and Middle Easterners for such practices and institutions just a century ago, but also the identities and histories of the Afro-Asian diasporas who are the descendants of enslaved Africans.
Building on my last point, the legacy of the enslavement in Africans in the Middle East and South Asia still affects how we perceive Africans today. For one, the lack of education on the Indian Ocean Slave Trade is obvious evidence of the continuous marginalization of African diasporas in Asia and black people in general. If you read the first article, you will learn about how the rudimentary education and perception of Siddhi history erases the role that they played into constructing kingdoms, societies, and nations in South Asian as sultans, as domestic slaves, as military conscripts, etc. This has caused the marginalization of Siddhis in Pakistan and India in particular which have the high populations of the aforementioned ethnic group.
Lastly, MODERN SLAVERY EXISTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE FORM OF KAFALA. “For decades, migrant domestic workers in Lebanon have complained of rampant abuse at the hands of their employers. Stories of unpaid wages, being locked into the homes where they work, of violence and sexual assault are all commonplace.”. Arabian gulf economies rely on the cheap labor of migrant workers from Africa, South Asia, and South East Asia. The way that this affects African migrant workers in particular is reflected in the Arabic word “abeed”. Abeed is an antiblack slur which literally means “slave” and is predominantly used against darker skinned Africans. Calling black people abeed has been part of the Arab world long before the kafala system of the exploitation of migrant workers existed, and it’s status as an antiblack slur probably started with the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. This is why Arabs may call Africans or Afro-Arabs an abeed even if they are not migrant workers or domestic servants. The Kafala system relies and supports racism and xenophobia against South Asians and South East Asians in order to exploit Asian migrant workers from those countries. In a similar way, the kafala system relies on and supports antiblackness to exploit African migrant workers, which includes invoking the historical relationship of African slaves and Arab slave masters.
The dispossession of Afro-Asian diasporas and the treatment of African migrant workers are rampant consequences of the enslavement of Africans by Asians. I really really recommend reading into the history of Afro-Asian diasporas and the effect of the kafala system on all migrant workers, including black ones and Asian ones, to understand all the nuances of this topic I might have skipped out on. Migrant workers right now in Gulf Countries are forced to do without pay, are being laid off, are being repatriated to their former nations, at alarming rates because of the pandemic.
Lastly, it’s upsetting that i know some of you may only care about the kafala system because I mentioned exploited migrant workers from South Asia and South East Asia. But then again, if you’re blindsided by your own racial trauma that you selfishly choose to ignore how your communities contribute to the marginalization of other minorities, you probably don’t care for dismantling system of oppressions you neither benefit or are harmed from.
submitted by jokkhodeen to aznidentity [link] [comments]

Western culture has become weak to the point where my generation is unreliable. A victim culture of sort

I live in Europe currently, I was born here and my father is native to it. My mother is African and 6-7 months after my birth, they left to my mother's native country as my dad's work brought him there (at the time, he was a doctor without borders). I've been living in Europe now for the past 4 years prior to that I was in Africa. My childhood was basically me and family moving from one region to another where natural disasters, outbreaks and not large but enough conflict occurred. Always under the careful watch of my mother's family or herself due to the surrounding dangers like child sacrifices and others... I didn't know of this till my later stages of my teens ( a link for the curious ones in here) The country I was brought up from is messed up. The government doesnt care about anyone, the leading political party has kept power since the civil war by means of corruption, political assassination and systematic destruction of the main opposition, which controls the northern part of the country. By using military and police to attack their headquarters and political members housing and it has spiralled out of control by even allowing and not confronting the northern threat (Islamic terrorist in the very north of the country) leaving the northern tribes to fend for themselves. I thought living here would be better, but what I see people complaining about everything which to me is insignificant, government oppression, racism, living standards etc. But to me, in my eyes, they hold no basis for arguments. Their lives are way better than any of my family members lives back home, my older brothers life back in Africa is nothing in comparison even to the most so called oppressed people/person in Europe or the US. I grew up dreaming of one day living in the US, home of the brave and the free. Democracy and capitalism at its best, you keep what you make. The defenders of the world's freedom. I have utmost respect for the United States, I envy anybody from there and would trade my life, childhood experiences with anyone from there no matter their social, and financial status because I know it would be largely better than the majority of the people I grew up with, known and lost.
I was molded by a society where death, violence, oppression (of mix coloured people is real, like I laughed so hard when I heard a year ago or so that racism is only white/brown people and black can't be racist haha) are all daily occurrences. Maybe this made me stronger than the norm (mentally) or just made me ignorant to empathy but being the sort of the silent type of person that I am. I don't usually voice my opinion to the masses, even writing this here has taken a lot of effort, thinking, rethinking thank god it's anonymous. In continuation.
There is a big margin of difference between living somewhere where a government cares about you (even if it's a little) compared to somewhere, where they don't and if you share your opinion that doesn't go with what the party beliefs, you are oppressed. It's a shame because with internet, social media and news being so prominent in our countries (EU and US) I expected more than social justice where the loudest is correct. People with these means should inform themselves better and look at their way of life before advocating and defending political systems that have never worked. The worst is people actually listen to stars and Hollywood people who talk about climate change (yet take their private jets to France for a weekend) who talk about socialism and communism (yet they have so much money most of us will probably never see the same amount in two lifetimes)
People have become weak, justifying their lives by acknowledging their victim-hood and expecting a hand out in life. Where have the time of individuality gone, with today's society and social media influence people have become sheep either agreeing with everyone else or remaining silent and somehow governments are changing because of a small percentage of people. Now don't get me wrong, I support individual freedom no matter your sexe or sexual preferences. But it seems like we would prefer to create a monstrous government that could become dangerous than to just acknowledge the problem is from within and not external. Racists, sexists, rapists etc are a small minority of the people not everyone whether they be man or woman. We shouldn't oppress anybody in our society because of a few monsters out there. Especially not by helping horrible political system taking power. That will hurt everyone including yourself.
(English is not my first language so there may be some mistakes there and there and some weirdly made sentences)
submitted by Rebirthfox to unpopularopinion [link] [comments]

Trump’s record on foreign policy: Lost wars, new conflicts and broken promises

By: Medea Benjamin and Nicolas J. S. Davies - July 2, 2020
Read the article here:
On June 13, President Donald Trump told the graduating class at West Point, “We are ending the era of endless wars.” That is what Trump has promised since 2016, but the “endless” wars have not ended. Trump has dropped more bombs and missiles than George W. Bush or Barack Obama did in their first terms, and there are still roughly as many U.S. bases and troops overseas as when he was elected.
Trump routinely talks up both sides of every issue, and the corporate media still judge him more by what he says (and tweets) than by his actual policies. So it isn’t surprising that he is still trying to confuse the public about his aggressive war policy. But Trump has been in office for nearly three and a half years, and he now has a record on war and peace that we can examine.
Such an examination makes one thing very clear: Trump has come closer to starting new wars with North Korea, Venezuela, and Iran than to ending any of the wars he inherited from Obama. His first-term record shows Trump to be just another warmonger in chief.

A Bloody Inheritance

First, let’s look at what Trump inherited. At the end of the Cold War, U.S. political leaders promised Americans a “peace dividend,” and the Senate Budget Committee embraced a proposal to cut the U.S. military budget by 50 percent over the next ten years. Ten years later, only 22 percent in savings were realized, and the George W. Bush administration used the terrorist crimes of September 11 to justify illegal wars, systematic war crimes, and an extraordinary one-sided arms race in which the United States accounted for 45 percent of global military spending from 2003 to 2011. Only half this $2 trillion spending surge (in 2010 dollars) was related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, while the U.S. Navy and Air Force quietly cashed in a trillion-dollar wish list of new warships, warplanes, and high-tech weapons.
President Barack Obama entered the White House with a pledge to bring home U.S. troops from Iraq and Afghanistan, and to shrink the U.S. military footprint, but his presidency was a triumph of symbolism over substance. He won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize based on a few speeches, a lot of wishful thinking, and the world’s desperate hopes for peace and progress. But by the time Obama stepped down in 2017, he had dropped more bombs and missiles on more countries than Bush did, and had spent even more than Bush on weapons and war.
The major shift in U.S. war policy under Obama was to reduce politically sensitive U.S. troop casualties by transitioning from large-scale military occupations to mass bombing, shelling, and covert and proxy wars. While Republicans derisively dubbed Obama’s doctrine “leading from behind,” this was a transition that was already underway in Bush’s second term, when he committed the United States to completely withdraw its occupation troops from Iraq by the end of 2011.
Obama’s defenders, like Trump’s today, were always ready to absolve him of responsibility for war crimes, even as he killed thousands of civilians in airstrikes in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria and drone strikes in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia, including the gratuitous assassination of an American teenager in Yemen. Obama launched a new war to destroy Libya, and the United States’ covert role in the war in Syria was similar to its role in Nicaragua in the 1980s, for which, despite its covert nature, the International Court of Justice convicted the United States of aggression and ordered it to pay reparations.
Many senior U.S. military and civilian officials deserve a share of the guilt for America’s systematic crimes of aggression and other war crimes since 2001, but the principle of command responsibility, recognized from the Nuremberg principles to the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice, means that the commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces, the president of the United States, bears the heaviest criminal responsibility for these crimes under U.S. and international law.

Is Trump Different?

In January 2017, as Donald Trump prepared to take office, U.S. forces in Iraq conducted their heaviest month of aerial bombardment since the “shock and awe” bombing during the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. This time, the enemy was the Islamic State (IS), a group spawned by the U.S. invasion of Iraq and Obama’s covert support for Al Qaeda–linked groups in Syria. Iraqi forces captured East Mosul from the Islamic State on January 24, and in February, they began their assault on West Mosul, bombing and shelling it even more heavily until they captured the ruined city in July. A Kurdish Iraqi intelligence report recorded that more than forty thousand civilians were killed in the US-led destruction of Mosul.
Trump famously summed up his policy as “bomb the shit out of” the Islamic State. He appeared to give a green light to the military to murder women and children, saying, “When you get these terrorists, you have to take out their families.” Iraqi troops described explicit orders to do exactly that in Mosul. Middle East Eye (MEE) reported that Iraqi forces massacred all the survivors in Mosul’s Old City.
“We killed them all,” an Iraqi soldier said. “Daesh (IS), men, women, children. We killed everyone.” An Iraqi major told MEE,
After liberation was announced, the order was given to kill anything or anyone that moved . . . It was not the right thing to do . . . They gave themselves up and we just killed them . . . There is no law here now. Every day, I see that we are doing the same thing as Daesh. People went down to the river to get water because they were dying of thirst and we killed them.
By October 2017, Raqqa in Syria was even more totally destroyed than Mosul in Iraq. Under Obama and Trump, the United States and its allies have dropped more than 118,000 bombs and missiles on Iraq and Syria in their campaign against the Islamic State, while U.S. HIMARS rockets and U.S., French, and Iraqi heavy artillery killed even more indiscriminately.
The wholesale destruction of Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city, and other major cities in Iraq and Syria cannot be legally justified under the Hague and Geneva Conventions, any more than the destruction of entire cities in past wars, like Hiroshima or Dresden. Despite the total lack of accountability, it is clear that American bombs, rockets, and shells killed thousands of civilians in each city and town captured. Obama and Trump share responsibility for these terrible crimes, but they are an escalation of the systematic war crimes the United States has committed since 2001 under three presidents.
In Afghanistan, as the Taliban gradually takes control of more of the country, Trump has resisted the temptation to send in tens of thousands more U.S. troops, as Obama did, but he instead approved a major escalation in U.S. bombing that made 2018 and 2019 the heaviest and deadliest years of U.S. bombing in Afghanistan since 2001.
Trump has shrouded his war-making in even greater secrecy than Obama. The U.S. military has not published a monthly Airpower Summary since February 2020, nor official troop deployment numbers for Afghanistan, Iraq, or Syria for nearly three years. But the United States has dropped at least twenty thousand bombs on Afghanistan since Trump came to power, and there is no evidence of a reduction in bombing under the peace agreement the administration signed with the Taliban in February. Some U.S. troops have been withdrawn under that agreement, but the remaining 8,600 are still being replaced as their tours end, keeping U.S. troop strength at about the same level as when Obama left office.
troop strength at about the same level as when Obama left office.
Trump made a great show of repositioning U.S. troops in Syria in October 2019, leaving the United States’ Kurdish allies in Rojava to confront the Turkish invasion alone. But there are still at least 500 U.S. troops in Syria, and Trump deployed 14,000 more U.S. troops to the Middle East in 2019, including to a new base in Saudi Arabia.
Trump has vetoed every bill passed by Congress to disengage U.S. forces from the Saudi war in Yemen and to halt the sales of US-made warplanes and bombs, which the Saudis use to systematically kill Yemeni civilians. He created a new conflict with Iran by pulling out of the nuclear deal, and in January 2020, he capriciously flirted with a full-scale war on Iran by ordering the assassination of Iran’s General Qasem Soleimani and Iraqi military commander Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis in Iraq.
Trump’s bizarre decision to move the U.S. Embassy in Israel to a plot of land that is only partly within Israel’s internationally recognized borders — and partly on Palestinian territory that Israel is illegally occupying — quite literally took U.S. international relations into uncharted territory. Then Trump unveiled a so-called peace plan.jpg) based on Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s ambition to annex the rest of Palestine into a “Greater Israel” with vastly expanded — but still unrecognized and illegal — international borders.
Trump has also backed a coup in Bolivia, staged several failed ones in Venezuela, and targeted even the United States’ closest allies with sanctions to try to prevent them from trading with U.S. enemies. Trump’s brutal sanctions on Venezuela, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Cuba are not a peaceful alternative to war, but a form of economic warfare just as deadly as bombs, especially during a pandemic and its accompanying economic meltdown.

A Boon to the Merchants of Death

Once the large-scale U.S. military occupations in Iraq and Afghanistan ended under Obama, the U.S. military budget fell to $621 billion by 2015. But since then, military spending for procurement, research, and development (R&D), and base construction has risen by 39 percent. This has been a huge windfall for the Big Five U.S. weapons makers — Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, and General Dynamics — whose arms sales revenues rose 30 percent between 2015 and 2019.
The 49 percent increase to more than $100 billion for R&D on new weapons systems in 2020, part of the enormous $718 billion Pentagon budget, is a down payment on trillions of dollars in future revenue for the merchants of death unless these programs are stopped.
The pretext for Trump’s huge investment in big-ticket, high-tech weapons, including a new Space Force with a $15 billion price tag for 2021, is the New Cold War with Russia and China that he officially unveiled in the 2018 National Defense Strategy. Obama was already trying to shift away from the United States’ lost counterinsurgency wars in the greater Middle East through his “Pivot to Asia,” the US-backed coup in Ukraine, and the expansion of U.S. land and naval forces encircling Russia and China.
But Trump has the same problem as Obama as he tries to wriggle out of the “forever wars”: how to bring U.S. troops home without making it obvious to the whole world that this chronically weak imperial power and its extravagant multitrillion-dollar war machine has been defeated everywhere. Even the most expensive weapons still only kill people and break things. Establishing peace and stability require other kinds of power and legitimacy, which the United States does not possess and which cannot be bought.
Before President Dwight D. Eisenhower left office in 1961, he remarked, “God help this country when someone sits in this chair who doesn’t know the military as well as I do.” Trump is obviously as dazzled by chests full of medals and whizz-bang technology as every other president since Eisenhower, so he will keep giving the Pentagon everything it wants to keep spreading violence and chaos around the world.
Just as Obama co-opted and muted liberal opposition to Bush’s wars and record arms spending, Trump has co-opted and muted conservative opposition to Obama’s wars. Now, with the outpouring of protests against domestic police repression and calls for defunding the police, there is a growing chorus to also defund the military. That is certainly not a call Trump would listen to, but would Joe Biden be more receptive to public calls for peace and disarmament than Obama and Trump?
Probably not, based on his long record in the Senate, his roles in authorizing war on Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, his close ties to Israel, and his failure to rein in U.S. war-making as vice president, despite personally opposing Obama’s escalation in Afghanistan. Biden is also trying to outdo Trump in his opposition to China. Like Obama and Trump, Biden would be mainly a new manager and salesman in chief to sell the military-industrial complex’s latest strategy for war and global military occupation to the corporate media and the American public.
We will not rescue our country from the iron grip of the military-industrial complex by picking the lesser evil and hoping for the best. That has not worked for sixty years, since Eisenhower defined the problem so clearly in his farewell address.
On the other hand, a civil society coalition, led by the Poor People’s Campaign and including CODEPINK, is calling for a $350 billion cut in the military budget to fund human needs and public services, and representatives Barbara Lee, Pramila Jayapal, and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez have introduced a resolution in Congress to do just that.
At the margins, this campaign could have more impact on Biden than on Trump, but not if people sweep up the bunting on election night and think their job is done, as liberals did with Obama and anti-war conservatives did with Trump. Unless and until the American public applies overwhelming pressure to dismantle the U.S. war machine and its futile bid for “full spectrum” global dominance, the U.S. military will keep losing wars on its own terms, bleeding us dry (metaphorically), and bleeding our neighbors overseas dry (literally), until it loses a major war with mass U.S. casualties or destroys us all in a nuclear war.
The U.S. peace movement has always had huge passive public support, but it will take mass collective action, not just passive support, to secure a peaceful future for our children and grandchildren. Public outrage and activism are starting to take away the license to kill black and brown people with impunity from the militarized RoboCops on our streets. The same kind of collective political action can defund and disarm the U.S. military and take away its license to kill black and brown people everywhere.
Building a new anti-war movement that is connected to the domestic anti-police struggle is the only thing that can rein in U.S. militarism. Because reelecting a president with as much blood on his hands as Trump — or simply transferring the command of the war machine to Joe Biden — certainly won’t.
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Lynn de Rothschild – one of the closest people to Epstein, Maxwell and Prince Andrew who knew them for decades but her connections are rarely mentioned in the mainstream media.

There have been articles in the mainstream media about Epstein and his connections to politicians and billionaire families – Wexners, Dubins, Bronfmans, Leon Black and others.
But there is one person who may have been the closest to them all but her Epstein connections are rarely mentioned in the mainstream media – Lynn de Rothschild - the wife of Evelyn de Rothschild who was mentioned in the Epsteins "black book".
The reason why she is not mentioned in the media is probably the fact that Rothschilds are more influencial and more powerful than the other billionaires mentioned. The family has been one of the richest if not the richest family in the world since 19th century ( The Independent )
and she has the highest level political connections in the American society – she has been close to and has been fundraising the political campaigns of the Clintons, John McCain and others. Some London banking industry insiders have estimated the family fortune to be over trillion dollars – and thats not gossip and rumors but that has been also reported in the British mainstream media.( The Independent )
The person who introduced Alan Dershowitz to Epstein was Lynn de Rothschild. She was close to Epstein and Maxwell for decades – which means that she knew Epstein longer than Alan Dershowitz for example
Dershowitz likes to say that he met Jeffrey Epstein through his friend Lady Rothschild—the former Lynn Forester. In 1996, Lynn Forester (who actually had not yet married into the Rothschild dynasty) suggested that he would enjoy getting to know Epstein, an “interesting autodidact.” Epstein, who had grown up in Coney Island and dropped out of college, was an unimposing person, described by one friend as “shy, weird, introverted.” ( New Yorker )
Lynn was also a big fan of the notorious pervert – she sold him her apartment ( below market value ) and attended various thinktanks with him together.
She once wrote to president Bill Clinton: 'Dear Mr President: It was a pleasure to see you recently at Senator Kennedy's house. There was too much to discuss and too little time. Using my fifteen seconds of access to discuss Jeffrey Epstein and currency stabilization, I neglected to talk to you about a topic near and dear to my heart. Namely, affirmative action and the future,' she wrote. ( Daily Mail )
Lynn de Rothschild and the billionaires offshore tax advisor of the famous banking dynasty sold a New York apartment to Epstein for about 70 % below market price. What was it - a tax avoidance scheme ? Manhattan townhouse was purchased for $4.95 million in October 2000 by an anonymous corporation with the same address as Epstein’s finance office on Madison Avenue. The seller was Lynn Forester Rothschild. Forester sold the mansion for about $8.5 million less than its assessed market value, which was more than $13.4 million ( )
The house where Ghislaine Maxwell lived at 116 East 65th Street was listed as belonging to Jeffrey Epstein. A corporation was created for the house ( Thethreadapp ):The Manhattan property, which is close to Epstein’s mansion, is owned by Lynn Forester de Rothschild, wife of the British financier Sir Evelyn Robert de Rothschild.The phote in the Epstein black book where the address is marked as "Apartment for Models"
Prince Andrew had the image of playboy and a party animal decades ago – hence his nickname Randy Andy. It was Lynn de Rothschild who found it to be her duty to polish the Prince Andrew image. See the 2001 article in The Mail : " Can Lynn rescue Andrews image ? How Sir Evelyn de Rothschildś socialite wife has gathered some of Americaś most influencial media figures to clean up the Duke of York´s playboy reputation."
Her husband – Evelyn de Rothschild was also in the Epstein black book. Her husband Evelyn has an estimated net worth of 20 billion dollars, ( Celebrity Net Worth ) The portal estimates the family fortune to be 400 billion dollars, but this could be just a tip of the iceberg.One of the biggest British mainstream newspapers The Independent wrote in 2006: “But in another way it marks out the continuation of an even older tradition - the ability of the family which has founded one of the world's largest private banking dynasties to sustain their secretive fortune, which industry insiders count NOT IN BILLIONS BUT IN TRILLIONS, and keep it within the family. Secrecy has been a hallmark of the Rothschilds from the outset. ( The Independent )
Two billionaire families – Rothschilds and Bronfmans have close connections. They have formed joint ventures together , like Bronfman Rothschild advisory where Lynn served as a member of the board.
Two members of the Bronfman family - Clare and Sara were arrested in 2019 for bankrolling the NVXIM sex trafficking cult - which means that they basically owned the operation. The sisters invested about 150 million dollars in the operation.
Documents from Britain’s national archives,which academics at University College London are studying, showed that Rothschild, a founder of the banking dynasty, had allowed the use of slaves as collateral when banking with a slave owner, the FT said. The documents also indicated that Freshfield, an early partner in the law firm, acted as a trustee for some clients in deals involving Caribbean slave plantations. ( Financial Times )After the revelations in 2009 the British investment bank Rothschild and top law firm Freshfields said that they “greatly regret” past links between their founders and the slave trade. The 19th century founders Nathan Mayer Rothschild and James William Freshfield both supported the abolition of the slave trade, with Freshfield having been an active member of the Church Missionary Society. But new historic research shows both were engaged in business linked to the slave trade, the Financial Times has reported. Both companies issued statements on their websites on Wednesday in which they said they had been unaware of the connection. ( Reuters )
Rothschilds were one of the slave traders but this is not something special and many jews at the time were slave traders. Using the research of Jewish historians, a book suggests that based on the 1830 census, Jews actually had a higher per capita slave ownership than for the white population as a whole." ( The Atlantic Magazine – Slavery and the Jews )
Its an interesting fact that Epsteins close friend Alan Dershowitz once accused a democratic party nominee Keith Ellison of being antisemitic because Ellison had claimed that jews were once a primary force in the slave trade ( The Hill ). Dershowitz threatened to leave the democratic party if Ellison gets elected anywhere. It is interesting because Wikipedia actually says that jews were once a primary force in the African slave trade:( ):
Records of long-distance Jewish slave merchants date at least as far back as 492, when Pope Gelasius permitted Jews to import non-Christian slaves into Italy, at the request of a Jewish friend from Telesina.[27][28][29] By the turn of the 6th to the 7th century, Jews had become the chief slave traders in Italy, and were active in Gallic territories. Pope Gregory the Great issued a ban on Jews possessing Christian slaves, lest the slaves convert to Judaism.[29][30] By the 9th and 10th centuries, Jewish merchants, sometimes called Radhanites, were a major force in the slave trade continent-wide.[11][31][32] *Jews were one of the few groups who could move and trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds.[32] Ibn Khordadbeh observed and recorded routes of Jewish merchants in his Book of Roads and Kingdoms from the South of France to Spain, carrying (amongst other things) female slaves, eunuch slaves, and young slave boys. He also notes Jews purchasing Slavic slaves in Prague.[11][29][33] Letters of Agobard, archbishop of Lyons (816–840),[34][35][36][37] acts of the emperor Louis the Pious,[38][39] and the seventy-fifth canon of the Council of Meaux of 845 confirms the existence of a route used by Jewish traders with Slavic slaves through the Alps to Lyon, to Southern France, to Spain.[11] Toll records from Walenstadt in 842–843 indicate another trade route, through Switzerland, the Septimer and Splügen passes, to Venice, and from there to North Africa.[11]*American mainland colonial Jews imported slaves from Africa at a rate proportionate to the general population. As slave sellers, their role was more marginal, although their involvement in the Brazilian and Caribbean trade is believed to be considerably more significant.[13] ( )

Epstein and Lynn as members of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission and the Bilderberg Group
Epstein and Lynn were members of the Council on Foreign Relations and Trilateral Commission together.She has also attended the meetings of the Bilderberg Group. Lynn even met her husband Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998 Bilderberg Conference, the annual meeting of European and North American political and financial grandees, she was there as an American lawyer and businesswoman. They married in 2000. A dinner celebrating their union was attended by then president Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary, with whom the couple are close friends. The Rothschilds were reported to have spent a night of their honeymoon at the Clinton White House. Indeed, Lady de Rothschild was so involved with Hillary’s presidential campaign that she had little time to devote to her own company R Chocolate. But she is on the board, as well as serving as chair of EL Rothschild, a director of Estée Lauder, the cosmetics company, and a non-executive director of the Economist Group. “I love developing businesses,” she says. ( Financial Times )
Epstein was also mentioned in a 1995 letter sent to Clinton by businesswoman Lynn Forester de Rothschild. 'Dear Mr President: It was a pleasure to see you recently at Senator Kennedy's house. There was too much to discuss and too little time. Using my fifteen seconds of access to discuss Jeffrey Epstein and currency stabilization, I neglected to talk to you about a topic near and dear to my heart. Namely, affirmative action and the future,' she wrote. ( Daily Mail )
Lady Lynn Forester de Rothschild is not just a Clinton friend, she was a campaign surrogate for Clinton in 2008 and a campaign contribution bundler in the current election cycle. She is in the inner circle of the national Democratic Party. In one email, released this week by Wikileaks, she advises reigning in Senator Elizabeth Warren's economic message as being too left.
Close Hillary Clinton friend Lynn Forester de Rothschild (Economist publisher) is also a trustee of the John McCain Institute.
Ms. de Rothschild, a personal friend and prominent backer of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton and a member of the committee that helped draft the Democratic Party’s platform, announced on Wednesday that while she intended to keep her party affiliation, she would not be voting for Senator Barack Obama. The Democratic Baroness Endorsed McCain-Palin Ticket instead. ( NY Times )
There is a difference between Clintons and McCains when it comes to Epstein though – while Clintons were close to Epstein and even had a holiday in his ranch – Cindy McCain has said that "Epstein was a chickens--t for doing what he did," she said. "He should have faced the music, that one." ( Arizona Central )
"The few who understand the system, will either be so interested from it's profits or so dependant on it's favors, that there will be no opposition from that class." Rothschild Brothers of London, 1863 ( Wikipedia – Federal Reserve Act )
Totally random quote by former Facebook vice president Chamath Palihapitiya speaking to Stanford students: ( ) ( Youtube ) :
Well, look, here's the thing. There's about 150 people that run the world. Anybody who wants to go into politics, they're all fucking puppets, OK. There are 150, and they're all men, that run the world. Period. Full stop. \*They control most of the important assets, they control the money flows, and these are not the tech entrepreneurs.** Now, they [tech entrepreneurs] are going to get rolled over in the next 5-10 years by the people who are really underneath pulling the strings. And when you get behind the curtain and see how that world works, what you realize is that it is unfairly set up for them and their progeny. Chamath Palihapitiya* Youtube )
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I am about to post the 3000 most common words in the English lexicon. Wish me luck...

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Swing Trading: Halal or Haram? Forex Trading Me Margin Haram Aur Shares Me Halal Kaise, Ek Sawal Ka Jawab STOP LOSS आणि TARGET कसे आणि कोठे लावायचे ? Short Selling: Halal or Haram?

Margin Trading Margin trading is buying stocks using money loaned from the broker. Interest is paid for this loan, and therefore it is prohibited. In addition to the Islamic prohibition, this is a very risky (and complicated) practice, since you can lose more than what you have borrowed, when you are asked to cover up the loan (if the stock price goes down). Usury is of course completely prohibited in Islam, and is defined very widely. This implies that any kind of deal or contract which involves an element of interest (riba) is not permissible according to Islamic law. If you’re thinking about investing in Islamic finance or an Islamic nation or company, know that some types of financial market activity, such as margin trading, day trading, options, and futures, are considered gray areas in Islamic law. The majority of Islamic scholars believe that sharia law prohibits these transactions because the activities involve interest, […] What Islam says about online forex trading: a fresh look with more industry perspective. June 1, 2018. Some of the ones you have picked up on are: interest-baring accounts; trading on margin and the idea of speculation. You touch upon the interest issue in your post, but one of the ways that someone can avoid the interest (which is Margin trading is not permissible for a number of reasons. Firstly, because it entails entering into a interest-bearing contract with the broker. “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, cursed the one takes interest, the one who gives it, the one who writes [the contract], and those who witnesses it.” (Muslim)

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Swing Trading: Halal or Haram?

is share trading haram in islam share trading for beginners in india ... share trading margin share trading website india share trading without demat account share trading school Islamic Finance - FOREX Trading: Halal or Haram by Sheikh Hacene Chebbani - Duration: 1:10:59. IISC Multimedia 194,702 views. 1:10:59. Short-Selling in Islamic Finance Dr Humayon Dar, CEO BMB ... Forex Trading Me Margin Haram Aur Shares Me Halal Kaise, Ek Sawal Ka Jawab ... Forex trading in islam Halal or haramExplained - Duration: 12:37. Bukhari Academy 4,615 views. is share trading haram in islam share trading for beginners in india share trading for govt employee share trading classes near me ... share trading margin share trading website india #IslamicFinance #HalalTrading This video examines whether swing trading is halal or haram as well as the merits of swing trading as a general investment policy and proposes an alternative ...