﻿ How a Margin Account Works | Margin Trading Calculator

# How a Margin Account Works | Margin Trading Calculator

• How a Margin Account Works | Margin Trading Calculator
• Margin Calculator
• How Is Margin Interest Calculated?
• How to Calculate Leverage, Margin, and Pip Values in Forex
• Margin Trading - Fidelity
##### [Noob Question] Can someone explain how to calculate margin trading profit in a simple terms please

Sorry for the Noob question ahead of time. I understand it is risky and all. I am just curious, how do you calculate the profit from margin trading for an example like this one.
I have 1000 ether (at 50 USD each, which is a total of 50,000 USD) and I borrow 1000 ether more. Now I am at 2000 Ether in total. Can someone explain the rest. In a profit/loss calculation?
Please and thank you.
submitted by golden-china to ethtrader [link] [comments]

##### How to calculate cost basis on margin trading?

I'm writing a program to figure out my taxes owed for 2017 and also to understand when my crypto purchases are eligible for long-term capital gains. I did some heavy margin trading and I'm not sure how these trades should be calculated.
Let's say I bought 100 ETH in March 2017. Using FIFO, these would become long-term capital gains in March 2018. Easy peasy.
Let's now say that I margin traded on borrowed USD (went long, closed position, rinse repeat) for more than 100 ETH later in that year.
If I'm using FIFO, when I close my position (sell ETH) does this change the long-term capitals gains date of my initial pool of 100 ETH? Or is margin trading treated completely different in it's own separate pool?
Any advice in general in calculating margin trading taxes is much appreciated. Thank you!
submitted by _otpyrc to CryptoTax [link] [comments]

##### Does anyone has a very helpful guide on how Kraken calculates all of the numbers related to margin trading. I know I sound foolish but I studied Business and economics but I need some explanation

submitted by VLADIMIROVIC_L to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

##### Does anyone has a very helpful guide on how Kraken calculates all of the numbers related to margin trading. I know I sound foolish but I studied Business and economics but I need some explanation /r/Bitcoin

 submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

##### How to is the "Tradable Balance" calculated when Margin Trading ?

Does someone has the exact formula that allow you to calculate your "Tradable balance" on BitFinex based on your collateral in Margin Wallet, open positions and open orders ?

Initial equity is 30%. This means the USD value of the funds you hold in your Margin wallets need to be at least 30% of the USD value of the position you wish to open.
So if you have 1000 USD in your margin wallet. Those 1000 USD will serve as collateral for opening margin positions up to 3.33:1. IE a margin position with a USD value up to 3333.33 USD.
If you wish to use 2x leverage only, the size of your position should only be worth 2000 USD.
When holding 1000 USD your tradable balance will be 1000 * (1 / 0.3) = 3333.33 USD

This is the only info I found in the documentation. But this doesn't take into account open Margin positions and open Margin Orders.
submitted by Mishichi to bitfinex [link] [comments]

##### E-Trade Question - How is margin calculated with respect to maximum loss?

Sorry in advance for asking what might be a trivial question and one that is only applicable to a small group, but I've never used my margin power and I'm curious if I can get an answer before the weekend is over.
Question: How does E-Trade calculate margin if I run a spread / strategy where my maximum risk is greater than my cash on hand, but less than my margin power?
For example: I have \$5,000 worth of stock in my account and \$0 cash, but also \$10,000 of margin buying power. If I open a bear call spread with an immediate credit of, say, \$4000, but carry a maximum risk of, say, \$6,000, does E-Trade reserve \$6,000 of margin for my maximum loss? If so, does that cost me anything?
Just thinking logically I'd assume they flat out don't let you take risk greater than your cash+margin balance, but when do they charge interest on use of margin? Is it when you put the money at risk, or when you actually spend it?
submitted by Drunken_Dino to options [link] [comments]

##### How to calculate the amount of margin for a trade?

submitted by KiaraFinnan to Forex [link] [comments]

##### Former investment bank FX trader: some thoughts

Hi guys,
I have been using reddit for years in my personal life (not trading!) and wanted to give something back in an area where i am an expert.
I worked at an investment bank for seven years and joined them as a graduate FX trader so have lots of professional experience, by which i mean I was trained and paid by a big institution to trade on their behalf. This is very different to being a full-time home trader, although that is not to discredit those guys, who can accumulate a good amount of experience/wisdom through self learning.
When I get time I'm going to write a mid-length posts on each topic for you guys along the lines of how i was trained. I guess there would be 15-20 topics in total so about 50-60 posts. Feel free to comment or ask questions.
The first topic is Risk Management and we'll cover it in three parts
Part I
• Why it matters
• Position sizing
• Kelly
• Using stops sensibly
• Picking a clear level

# Why it matters

The first rule of making money through trading is to ensure you do not lose money. Look at any serious hedge fund’s website and they’ll talk about their first priority being “preservation of investor capital.”
You have to keep it before you grow it.
Strangely, if you look at retail trading websites, for every one article on risk management there are probably fifty on trade selection. This is completely the wrong way around.
The great news is that this stuff is pretty simple and process-driven. Anyone can learn and follow best practices.
Seriously, avoiding mistakes is one of the most important things: there's not some holy grail system for finding winning trades, rather a routine and fairly boring set of processes that ensure that you are profitable, despite having plenty of losing trades alongside the winners.

# Capital and position sizing

The first thing you have to know is how much capital you are working with. Let’s say you have \$100,000 deposited. This is your maximum trading capital. Your trading capital is not the leveraged amount. It is the amount of money you have deposited and can withdraw or lose.
Position sizing is what ensures that a losing streak does not take you out of the market.
A rule of thumb is that one should risk no more than 2% of one’s account balance on an individual trade and no more than 8% of one’s account balance on a specific theme. We’ll look at why that’s a rule of thumb later. For now let’s just accept those numbers and look at examples.
So we have \$100,000 in our account. And we wish to buy EURUSD. We should therefore not be risking more than 2% which \$2,000.
We look at a technical chart and decide to leave a stop below the monthly low, which is 55 pips below market. We’ll come back to this in a bit. So what should our position size be?
We go to the calculator page, select Position Size and enter our details. There are many such calculators online - just google "Pip calculator".

https://preview.redd.it/y38zb666e5h51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=26e4fe569dc5c1f43ce4c746230c49b138691d14
So the appropriate size is a buy position of 363,636 EURUSD. If it reaches our stop level we know we’ll lose precisely \$2,000 or 2% of our capital.
You should be using this calculator (or something similar) on every single trade so that you know your risk.
Now imagine that we have similar bets on EURJPY and EURGBP, which have also broken above moving averages. Clearly this EUR-momentum is a theme. If it works all three bets are likely to pay off. But if it goes wrong we are likely to lose on all three at once. We are going to look at this concept of correlation in more detail later.
The total amount of risk in our portfolio - if all of the trades on this EUR-momentum theme were to hit their stops - should not exceed \$8,000 or 8% of total capital. This allows us to go big on themes we like without going bust when the theme does not work.
As we’ll see later, many traders only win on 40-60% of trades. So you have to accept losing trades will be common and ensure you size trades so they cannot ruin you.
Similarly, like poker players, we should risk more on trades we feel confident about and less on trades that seem less compelling. However, this should always be subject to overall position sizing constraints.
For example before you put on each trade you might rate the strength of your conviction in the trade and allocate a position size accordingly:

https://preview.redd.it/q2ea6rgae5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=4332cb8d0bbbc3d8db972c1f28e8189105393e5b
To keep yourself disciplined you should try to ensure that no more than one in twenty trades are graded exceptional and allocated 5% of account balance risk. It really should be a rare moment when all the stars align for you.
Notice that the nice thing about dealing in percentages is that it scales. Say you start out with \$100,000 but end the year up 50% at \$150,000. Now a 1% bet will risk \$1,500 rather than \$1,000. That makes sense as your capital has grown.
It is extremely common for retail accounts to blow-up by making only 4-5 losing trades because they are leveraged at 50:1 and have taken on far too large a position, relative to their account balance.
Consider that GBPUSD tends to move 1% each day. If you have an account balance of \$10k then it would be crazy to take a position of \$500k (50:1 leveraged). A 1% move on \$500k is \$5k.
Two perfectly regular down days in a row — or a single day’s move of 2% — and you will receive a margin call from the broker, have the account closed out, and have lost all your money.
Do not let this happen to you. Use position sizing discipline to protect yourself.

# Kelly Criterion

If you’re wondering - why “about 2%” per trade? - that’s a fair question. Why not 0.5% or 10% or any other number?
The Kelly Criterion is a formula that was adapted for use in casinos. If you know the odds of winning and the expected pay-off, it tells you how much you should bet in each round.
This is harder than it sounds. Let’s say you could bet on a weighted coin flip, where it lands on heads 60% of the time and tails 40% of the time. The payout is \$2 per \$1 bet.
Well, absolutely you should bet. The odds are in your favour. But if you have, say, \$100 it is less obvious how much you should bet to avoid ruin.
Say you bet \$50, the odds that it could land on tails twice in a row are 16%. You could easily be out after the first two flips.
Equally, betting \$1 is not going to maximise your advantage. The odds are 60/40 in your favour so only betting \$1 is likely too conservative. The Kelly Criterion is a formula that produces the long-run optimal bet size, given the odds.
Applying the formula to forex trading looks like this:
Position size % = Winning trade % - ( (1- Winning trade %) / Risk-reward ratio
If you have recorded hundreds of trades in your journal - see next chapter - you can calculate what this outputs for you specifically.
If you don't have hundreds of trades then let’s assume some realistic defaults of Winning trade % being 30% and Risk-reward ratio being 3. The 3 implies your TP is 3x the distance of your stop from entry e.g. 300 pips take profit and 100 pips stop loss.
So that’s 0.3 - (1 - 0.3) / 3 = 6.6%.
Hold on a second. 6.6% of your account probably feels like a LOT to risk per trade.This is the main observation people have on Kelly: whilst it may optimise the long-run results it doesn’t take into account the pain of drawdowns. It is better thought of as the rational maximum limit. You needn’t go right up to the limit!
With a 30% winning trade ratio, the odds of you losing on four trades in a row is nearly one in four. That would result in a drawdown of nearly a quarter of your starting account balance. Could you really stomach that and put on the fifth trade, cool as ice? Most of us could not.
Accordingly people tend to reduce the bet size. For example, let’s say you know you would feel emotionally affected by losing 25% of your account.
Well, the simplest way is to divide the Kelly output by four. You have effectively hidden 75% of your account balance from Kelly and it is now optimised to avoid a total wipeout of just the 25% it can see.
This gives 6.6% / 4 = 1.65%. Of course different trading approaches and different risk appetites will provide different optimal bet sizes but as a rule of thumb something between 1-2% is appropriate for the style and risk appetite of most retail traders.
Incidentally be very wary of systems or traders who claim high winning trade % like 80%. Invariably these don’t pass a basic sense-check:
• How many live trades have you done? Often they’ll have done only a handful of real trades and the rest are simulated backtests, which are overfitted. The model will soon die.
• What is your risk-reward ratio on each trade? If you have a take profit \$3 away and a stop loss \$100 away, of course most trades will be winners. You will not be making money, however! In general most traders should trade smaller position sizes and less frequently than they do. If you are going to bias one way or the other, far better to start off too small.

# How to use stop losses sensibly

Stop losses have a bad reputation amongst the retail community but are absolutely essential to risk management. No serious discretionary trader can operate without them.
A stop loss is a resting order, left with the broker, to automatically close your position if it reaches a certain price. For a recap on the various order types visit this chapter.
The valid concern with stop losses is that disreputable brokers look for a concentration of stops and then, when the market is close, whipsaw the price through the stop levels so that the clients ‘stop out’ and sell to the broker at a low rate before the market naturally comes back higher. This is referred to as ‘stop hunting’.
This would be extremely immoral behaviour and the way to guard against it is to use a highly reputable top-tier broker in a well regulated region such as the UK.
Why are stop losses so important? Well, there is no other way to manage risk with certainty.
You should always have a pre-determined stop loss before you put on a trade. Not having one is a recipe for disaster: you will find yourself emotionally attached to the trade as it goes against you and it will be extremely hard to cut the loss. This is a well known behavioural bias that we’ll explore in a later chapter.
Learning to take a loss and move on rationally is a key lesson for new traders.
A common mistake is to think of the market as a personal nemesis. The market, of course, is totally impersonal; it doesn’t care whether you make money or not.
Bruce Kovner, founder of the hedge fund Caxton Associates
There is an old saying amongst bank traders which is “losers average losers”.
It is tempting, having bought EURUSD and seeing it go lower, to buy more. Your average price will improve if you keep buying as it goes lower. If it was cheap before it must be a bargain now, right? Wrong.
Where does that end? Always have a pre-determined cut-off point which limits your risk. A level where you know the reason for the trade was proved ‘wrong’ ... and stick to it strictly. If you trade using discretion, use stops.

# Picking a clear level

Where you leave your stop loss is key.
Typically traders will leave them at big technical levels such as recent highs or lows. For example if EURUSD is trading at 1.1250 and the recent month’s low is 1.1205 then leaving it just below at 1.1200 seems sensible.

If you were going long, just below the double bottom support zone seems like a sensible area to leave a stop
You want to give it a bit of breathing room as we know support zones often get challenged before the price rallies. This is because lots of traders identify the same zones. You won’t be the only one selling around 1.1200.
The “weak hands” who leave their sell stop order at exactly the level are likely to get taken out as the market tests the support. Those who leave it ten or fifteen pips below the level have more breathing room and will survive a quick test of the level before a resumed run-up.
Your timeframe and trading style clearly play a part. Here’s a candlestick chart (one candle is one day) for GBPUSD.

https://preview.redd.it/moyngdy4f5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=91af88da00dd3a09e202880d8029b0ddf04fb802
If you are putting on a trend-following trade you expect to hold for weeks then you need to have a stop loss that can withstand the daily noise. Look at the downtrend on the chart. There were plenty of days in which the price rallied 60 pips or more during the wider downtrend.
So having a really tight stop of, say, 25 pips that gets chopped up in noisy short-term moves is not going to work for this kind of trade. You need to use a wider stop and take a smaller position size, determined by the stop level.
There are several tools you can use to help you estimate what is a safe distance and we’ll look at those in the next section.
There are of course exceptions. For example, if you are doing range-break style trading you might have a really tight stop, set just below the previous range high.

https://preview.redd.it/ygy0tko7f5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=34af49da61c911befdc0db26af66f6c313556c81
Clearly then where you set stops will depend on your trading style as well as your holding horizons and the volatility of each instrument.
Here are some guidelines that can help:
1. Use technical analysis to pick important levels (support, resistance, previous high/lows, moving averages etc.) as these provide clear exit and entry points on a trade.
2. Ensure that the stop gives your trade enough room to breathe and reflects your timeframe and typical volatility of each pair. See next section.
3. Always pick your stop level first. Then use a calculator to determine the appropriate lot size for the position, based on the % of your account balance you wish to risk on the trade.
So far we have talked about price-based stops. There is another sort which is more of a fundamental stop, used alongside - not instead of - price stops. If either breaks you’re out.
For example if you stop understanding why a product is going up or down and your fundamental thesis has been confirmed wrong, get out. For example, if you are long because you think the central bank is turning hawkish and AUDUSD is going to play catch up with rates … then you hear dovish noises from the central bank and the bond yields retrace lower and back in line with the currency - close your AUDUSD position. You already know your thesis was wrong. No need to give away more money to the market.

# Coming up in part II

EDIT: part II here
Letting stops breathe
When to change a stop
Entering and exiting winning positions
Risk:reward ratios
Risk-adjusted returns

# Coming up in part III

Squeezes and other risks
Market positioning
Bet correlation
Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits

***
Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
submitted by getmrmarket to Forex [link] [comments]

##### I paid \$1000 for an Adam Khoo investing course so you don't have to! (Summarized in post)

Lesson one is "stock basics" summarized: (2 videos) for every buyer there's a seller, for every seller there's a buyer, fear and greed drives prices, what fundamental analysis means, what technical analysis means.
lesson 2 is ETFs summarized: (video 1) Bull markets are opportunities, bear markets are bigger opportunity's, Bear markets never last, always followed by bull market. (video 2) The market is volatile in the short term in the long term it always goes up, what an ETF is, different types of ETF indexes. (video 3) Expands on the different types of ETFs (bonds, commodities etc). (video 3) A 35min video on dollar cost averaging lol. (Video 5) summarizing the last 4 videos.
Lesson 3 is Steps to investing summarized: (video 1) A good business increases value over time, a valuable business has higher sales, earnings and cashflow. (video 2) invest in businesses that are undervalued or fairly valued, stocks trade below its value because investors have negative perception of the company
lesson 4 Financials summarized (all 4 videos) where to find financials, how to use a website (Morning Star) to screen stocks, how good is the company at making money, Look for companies that have growing revenue, check growth profit margin and net profit margin of company compared to industry.
Lesson 5 Stock Valuation summarized (2 videos) go here: https://tradebrains.in/dcf-calculato and look at what the calculator is asking for, go to Morning Star find the needed numbers that are required, bam you got the intrinsic vale.
Lesson 6 Technical Analysis summarized: (all 4 videos) What are candles sticks, what do they mean, support and ceilings, consolidation levels.
Lesson 7 The 7 step formula summarized: (3 videos) See what I wrote in lesson 3 and lesson 5.
lesson 8 Winning portfolio summarized summarized: (video 1) Diversify, keep portfolio balanced, different sectors (video 2) More sectors, Dividends (video 3) More on sectors, more on dividends, what are different stock caps (large cap, small cap etc)
Lesson 9 finding opportunities summarized: (video 1) see lesson 3, (video 2) creating a watch list,monitor news, company announcements, stock price, financials
Lesson 10 psychology of success summarized: (2 videos) basically: common sense.
Lesson 11 Finding a broker summarized: (1 video) look at fees and commissions, see minimum deposit, check margin rates, make sure it has a good trading platform.
I just saved you 18 hours and \$1000.
submitted by swagbasket34 to investing [link] [comments]

# tl;dr - Earnings is gonna be lit!

PRPL earnings is tomorrow, 8/13, after hours. Any other date is wrong. Robinhood is wrong (why are you using Robinhood still!?!).
I'm going to take you through my earnings projections and reasoning as well the things to look for in the earnings release and the call that could make this moon even further.

# Earnings Estimates

https://preview.redd.it/w3qad4gb9ng51.png?width=854&format=png&auto=webp&s=7a88656a9867d0e40710736f61974a22b5f4a631
I'm calling \$244M Net Revenue with \$39.75M in Net Income, which would be \$0.75 Diluted EPS. I'll walk you through how I got here

# Total Net Revenue

I make the assumption that Purple is still selling every mattress it can make (since that is what they said for April and May) and that this continued into June because the website was still delayed 7-14 days across all mattresses at the end of June.
May Revenue and April DTC: The numbers in purple were provided by Purple here and here.
April Wholesale: My estimate of \$2.7M for Wholesale sales in April comes from this statement from the Q1 earnings release: " While wholesale sales were down 42.7% in April year-over-year, weekly wholesale orders have started to increase on a sequential basis. " I divided Q2 2019's wholesale sales evenly between months and then went down 42.7%.
June DTC: This is my estimate based upon the fact that another Mattress Max machine went online June 1, thus increasing capacity, and the low end model was discontinued (raising revenue per unit).
June Wholesale: Joe Megibow stated at Commerce Next on 7/30 that wholesale had returned to almost flat growth. I'm going to assume he meant for the quarter, so I plugged the number here to finish out the quarter at \$39.0M, just under \$39.3M from a year ago.

Revenue Expectations from Analysts (via Yahoo)
https://preview.redd.it/notxd6hhbng51.png?width=384&format=png&auto=webp&s=aa0453414f467aa6c5bf72ce8a8046c0ae6e62a5
My estimate of \$244M comes in way over the high, let alone the consensus. PRPL has effectively already disclosed ~\$145M for April/May, so these expectations are way off. I'm more right than they are.

# Gross Margins

I used my estimates for Q3/Q4 2019 to guide margins in April/May as there were some one time events that occurred in Q1 depressing margins. June has higher margin because of the shift away from the low end model (which is priced substantially lower than the high end model). Higher priced models were given manufacturing priority.

# Operating Expenses

Marketing and Sales
Joe mentioned in the Commerce Next video that they were able to scale sales at a constant CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost). There's three ways of interpreting this:
1. Overall customer acquisition cost was constant with previous quarters (assume \$36M total, not \$93.2M), which means you need to add another \$57M to bottom line profit and \$1.08 to EPS, or
2. Customer Acquisition Costs on a unit basis were constant, which means I'm still overstating total marketing expense and understating EPS massively, or
3. Customer Acquisition Costs on a revenue basis were constant, which is the most conservative approach and the one I took for my estimate.
I straightlined the 2.2 ratio of DTC sales to Marketing costs from Q1. I am undoubtably too high in my expense estimate here as PRPL saw marketing efficiencies and favorable revenue shifts during the quarter. So, \$93.2M
General and Administrative
A Purple HR rep posted on LinkedIn about hiring 330 people in the quarter. I'm going to assume that was relative to the pre-COVID furloughs, so I had June at that proportional amount to previous employees and adjusted April and May for furloughs and returns from furlough.
Research and Development
I added just a little here and straight lined it.

# Other Expenses

Interest Expense
Straightlined from previous quarters, although they may have tapped ABL lines and so forth, so this could be under.
One Time and Other
Unpredictable by nature.
Warrant Liability Accrual
I'm making some assumptions here.
1. We know that the secondary offering event during Q2 from the Pearce brothers triggered the clause for the loan warrants (NOT the PRPLW warrants) to lower the strike price to \$0.
2. I can't think of a logical reason why the warrant holders wouldn't exercise at this point.
3. Therefore there is no longer a warrant liability where the company may need to repurchase warrants back.
4. The liability accrual of \$7.989M needs to be reversed out for a gain.
This sucker is worth about \$0.15 EPS on its own.

# Earnings (EPS)

I project \$39.75M or \$0.75 Diluted EPS (53M shares). How does this hold up to the analysts?
EPS Expectations from Analysts (via Yahoo)
https://preview.redd.it/o2i1dvk6hng51.png?width=373&format=png&auto=webp&s=27e63f7934d85393e1f7b87bf2e2066c28047202
EPS Expectations from Analysts (via MarketBeat)
https://preview.redd.it/psu5rajfhng51.png?width=1359&format=png&auto=webp&s=0612d43777c644789b14f8c5decbe36f41925f5e
These losers are way under. Now you know why I am so optimistic about earnings.
Keep in mind, these analysts are still giving \$28-\$30 price targets.

# What to Watch For During Earnings (aka Reasons Why This Moons More)

Analysts, Institutionals, and everyone else who uses math for investing is going to be listening for the following:
• Margin Growth
• Warrant Liability Accrual
• Capacity Expansion Rate
• CACs (Customer Acquisition Costs)
• New Product Categories
• Cashless Exercise of PRPLW warrants

Margin Growth
This factor is HUGE. If PRPL guides to higher margins due to better sales mix and continued DTC shift, then every analyst and investor is going to tweak their models up in a big way. Thus far, management has been relatively cautious about this fortuitous shift to DTC continuing. If web traffic is any indicator, it will, but we need management to tell us that.
Warrant Liability Accrual
I could be dead wrong on my assumptions above on this one. If it stays, there will be questions about it due to the drop in exercise price. It does impact GAAP earnings (although it shouldn't--stupid accountants).
Capacity Expansion Rate
This is a BIG one as well. As PRPL has been famously capacity constrained: their rate of manufacturing capacity expansion is their growth rate over the next year. PRPL discontinued expansion at the beginning of COVID and then re-accelerated it to a faster pace than pre-COVID by hurrying the machines in-process out to the floor. They also signed their manufacturing space deal which has nearly doubled manufacturing space a quarter early. The REAL question is when the machines will start rolling out. Previous guidance was end of the year at best. If we get anything sooner than that, we are going to ratchet up.
CACs (Customer Acquisition Costs)
Since DTC is the new game in town, we are all going to want to understand exactly where marketing expenses were this quarter and, more importantly, where management thinks they are going. The magic words to listen for are "marketing efficiencies". Those words means the stock goes up. This is the next biggest line item on the P&L besides revenue and cost of goods sold.
New Product Categories
We heard the VP of Brand from Purple give us some touchy-feely vision of where the company is headed and that mattresses was just the revenue generating base to empower this. I'm hoping we hear more about this. This is what differentiated Amazon from Barnes and Noble: Amazon's vision was more than just books. Purple sees itself as more than just mattresses. Hopefully we get some announced action behind that vision. This multiplies the stock.
Cashless Exercise of PRPLW Warrants
I doubt this will be answered, even if the question is asked. I bet they wait until the 20 out of 30 days is up and they deliver notice. We could be pleasantly surprised. If management informs us that they will opt for cashless exercise of the warrants, this is anti-dilutive to EPS. It will reduce the number of outstanding shares and automatically cause an adjustment up in the stock price (remember kids, some people use math when investing). I'm hopeful, but not expecting it. The amount of the adjustment depends on the current price of the stock. Also, I fully expect PRPL management to use their cashless exercise option at the end of the 20 out of 30 days as they are already spitting cash.

# Positions

https://preview.redd.it/tho65crvkng51.png?width=1242&format=png&auto=webp&s=6241ff5e8b26744f9d7119ddef7da86f163c741d
I'm not just holding, I added.
PRPLW Warrants: 391,280
PRPL Call Debit Spreads: 17.5c/25c 8/21 x90, 20c/25c 8/21 x247
Also, I bought some CSPR 7.5p 8/21 x200 for fun because I think that sucker is going to get shamed back down to \$6 after a real mattress company shows what it can do.

# UPDATES

I've made some updates to the model, and produced two different models:
1. Warrant Liability Accrual Goes to Zero
2. Warrant Liability Accrual Goes to \$47M
I made the following adjustments generally:
• I reduced marketing expenses signifanctly based upon comments made by Joe Megibox on 6/29 in this CNBC video to 30% of sales (thanks u/deepredsky).
• I reduced June wholesale revenue to 12.6M to be conservative based upon another possible interpretation of Joe's comments in this video here. It is a hard pill to swallow that June wholesale sales would be less than May's. The only reasoning I can think of is if May caused a large restock and then June tapered back off. The previous number of \$19.0M was still a retrenchment from the 40-50% YoY growth rate. I'm going to keep the more conservative number (thanks again u/deepredsky).
• I modified the number of outstanding shares used for EPS calculations from 53M (last quarters number used on the 10-Q) to almost 73M based upon the fact that all of the warrants and employee stock options are now in the money. Math below. (thanks DS_CPA1 on Stocktwits for pointing this out)
Capital Structure for EPS Calculations
From the recent S-3 filing for the May secondary, I pulled the following:
https://preview.redd.it/qw7awg8w7sg51.png?width=368&format=png&auto=webp&s=66c884682ddb8517939468ab1e6780742f55d427
I diluted earnings by the above share count.

Model With Warrant Liability Going to Zero
https://preview.redd.it/cz2ydomi4sg51.png?width=852&format=png&auto=webp&s=53cc457a3143cabb16bfff9a1503054a9a8c0fca
Model With Warrant Liability Going to \$47M
https://preview.redd.it/o2hltrgf5sg51.png?width=853&format=png&auto=webp&s=41cbe73a7aa0894a86a09ccc9179b100e9d3372d
A few people called me out on my assumption, that I also said could be wrong. My favorite callout came from u/lawschoolbluesny who started all smug and condescending, and proceeded to tell me about June 31st, from which I couldn't stop laughing. Stay in law school bud a bit longer...
https://preview.redd.it/dd4tcdue4sg51.png?width=667&format=png&auto=webp&s=d27f3ad40c702502ee62f106b6135f0db2c1e7be
One other comment he made needs an answer because WHY we are accruing MATTERS a lot!
Now that we have established that coliseum still has not exercised the options as of july 7, and that purple needs to record as a liability the fair value of the options as of june 31, we now need to determine what that fair value is. You state that since you believe that there is no logical reason that coliseum won't redeem their warrants "there is no longer a warrant liability where the company may need to repurchase warrants back." While I'm not 100% certain your logic here, I can say for certain that whether or not a person will redeem their warrants does not dictate how prpl accounts for them.

The warrant liability accrual DOES NOT exist because the warrants simply exist. The accrual exists because the warrants give the warrant holder the right to force the company to buy back the warrants for cash in the event of a fundamental transaction for Black Scholes value (\$18 at the end of June--June 31st that is...). And accruals are adjusted for the probability of a particular event happening, which I STILL argue is close to zero.
A fundamental transaction did occur. The Pearce brothers sold more than 10M shares of stock which is why the exercise price dropped to zero. (Note for DS_CPA1 on Stocktwits: there is some conflicting filings as to what the exercise price can drop to. The originally filed warrant draft says that the warrant exercise price cannot drop to zero, but asubsequently filed S-3, the exercise price is noted as being able to go to zero. I'm going with the S-3.)
Now, here is where it gets fun. We know from from the Schedule 13D filed with a July 1, 2020 event date from Coliseum that Coliseum DID NOT force the company to buy back the warrants in the fundamental transaction triggered by the Pearce Brothers (although they undoubtably accepted the \$0 exercise price). THIS fundamental transaction was KNOWN to PRPL at the end Q4 and Q1 as secondary filings were made the day after earnings both times. This drastically increased the probability of an event happening.
Where is the next fundamental transaction that could cause the redemption for cash? It isn't there. What does exist is a callback option if the stock trades above \$24 for 20 out of 30 days, which we are already 8 out of 10 days into.
Based upon the low probability of a fundamental transaction triggering a redemption, the accrual will stay very low. Even the CFO disagrees with me and we get a full-blown accrual, I expect a full reversal of the accrual next quarter if the 20 out of 30 day call back is exercised by the company.
I still don't understand why Coliseum would not have exercised these.
Regardless, the Warrant Liability Accrual is very fake and will go away eventually.

# ONE MORE THING...

Seriously, stop PMing me with stupid, simple questions like "What are your thoughts on earnings?", "What are your thoughts on holding through earnings?", and "What are your thoughts on PRPL?".
It's here. Above. Read it. I'm not typing it again in PM. I've gotten no less than 30 of these. If you're too lazy to read, I'm too lazy to respond to you individually.

submitted by lurkingsince2006 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

# Hello everyone,

I hope your day is going well. This post might take a while to read, so sit back and be prepared to dedicate a little bit of time on this one. I promise you, this stuff is worth it to learn.
Firstly, a recap of my progress so far trading pennystocks. I think my friend (more on this later) who introduced me to this subreddit did so on April 15th, not sure though. Here's where I'm at after 2.5 months of trading:

https://preview.redd.it/co0o0qig92e51.png?width=795&format=png&auto=webp&s=c96713953f9a8c4fc66823719487e32c17c3b180
If you're familiar with my style of trading, you know that I risk small amounts, 5% per trade.
However, I've started implementing a new strategy, where I scale into the position as the price moves in my favor, while at the same time eliminating the risk. it quite quickly compounds the tendies bro. All you have to do is adjust your stop loss higher as you buy more shares.

# And I get asked this question a lot:

https://preview.redd.it/ev3nv0e6b2e51.jpg?width=940&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f774ece5392fe147b96bad00dae553885001a784
This is not the way. I bagheld XSPA for a month right when I first started. F that. We're traders, not investors. Buy UPS or something if you wanna hold for long term lol. Anyway, I'm at 105% so far

# Which Brings us to AMTX

I've been trading with a great friend of mine. We became best bros in third grade when we both got accepted into the 'Gifted & Talented' program. He wishes to remain anonymous so that's as much as I'll say. Here is his fundamental analysis of AMTX:

Ok so AMTX: last earnings call went well, they are a recycling company that is on the ground floor of recycling in India, also in California.
They do biofuels like ethanol, that see good bumps when gas usage goes up and stays in the 40-60/barrel range. They held a Q/A in last earnings call in which they stated they anticipate the margins for ethanol profits to increase since some states are pushing for 15% ethanol blend over the current 10%, and studies have found that up to 20% is fine in vehicles.
They also stated if they need to raise the stock price, they will do so with stock buy back, not reverse split.
California is giving them grants for their recycling work, and they recently got 4 farms online for natural gas refinements, with 14 more signed up and should be connected to their plant soon.
4Q 2019 saw 52.1Mil revenue vs 38.8mil in 4Q 2018.
Net loss was 7.7 mil for 4q2019, vs 11.4mil 4q2018.
Revenue for 2019 202mil, 2018 was 171.5mil.

They have the support of California regulators, and California Low Carbon Fuel standard is in their favor.
They got their biodiesel plant in India up, all debt paid off, maintained 100% ownership with no dilution, and plan to use proceeds to pay down other debt and fund further renewable fuels projects. Expected revenue once india plant is at 100% production is 300mil from that plant alone.
Planned biorefinery in California, with tax break of 12.5 mil offsetting equity, \$125 mil from USDofAg. Expected revenue of \$80mil, construction begins once engineering and procurement work is complete.
I dont think its a 1400% runner, but they are doing good work, progressing towards significant revenue, and profit. And are the only company in all of India, and are in good with California, 2 huge biofuels markets.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Ok now back to me, this is how we trade it. I apologize that I didn't post this sooner. I posted about taking this trade at \$1.03 on my profile this morning.

# HOW TO TRADE AMTX

Here is the chart that I made last night. I wanted to stay up and post all of this late last night but I fell asleep instead. You can see a lot going on here. The bro listed like seven different good things, and now we have like seven more good things. Truly inspirational. Great stock.
1. Golden Cross: On the daily chart, you can see those EMAs have crossed. And you can also see that the price had already broken out at the point. My friend and I are working on finding these slightly sooner, ideally for this one would've been in the \$0.90 range, but hey, we don't need to capture 100% of the move.
2. You can see, that there were three seperate days where the price spiked, being held down by the 200ema each time. Anytime you see that, it is a very bullish sign.
3. It is also breaking out of the pennant that it created (red triangle)
4. The original entry for me was \$1.03, with a stop loss at \$0.91 and three seperate targets. It has already hit two of those, which brings the monthly fib extension target of \$2.05 into play.
5. I have already exited half of my position and have a stop loss in profit so that I'm not losing any money and I've already secured the tendies

https://preview.redd.it/wd1znrerc2e51.png?width=1828&format=png&auto=webp&s=48e7de32b22eab9bdac63795dc0946cf189b5da9

# Here is the new chart, and what we can look for moving forward.

https://preview.redd.it/vokxj6wuf2e51.png?width=1828&format=png&auto=webp&s=df50c79a7210633d2fa8db03cff9a6ce225e0760
You can see that today was a bearish daily candle. However, look at the previous day's wick. It spiked through that monthly resistance and the weekly resistance above that. It is totally normal for a retracement in this area. And today's candle didnt even close within the body of the previous candle.
The first potential trade is an entry anywhere below or at \$1.18, or you could wait for a dip down to \$1.12 depending on your style. I never wait for dips though because I'm impatient in trading sometimes. A stop loss of \$1.07 would be sufficient imo. Underneath the weekly support at \$1.12. If you don't know how to calculate position sizing yet, please learn before entering your next trade.
The first target is a fibonacci 127 extension at \$1.45. I will be looking to add positions here if i see bullish consolidation underneath monthly resistance at \$1.40.
The second target is at \$1.70, which is a wick fill play off of that previous spike. It's also monthly resistance.
submitted by trevandezz to pennystocks [link] [comments]

##### PRPL Nurps got twisted, How to interpret and move forward - I was wrong

 ​ Just about how I feel Alright ladies and Gentleman- Many of you gambled with me on a purple earnings play and it didn't quite materialize as expected - I hope many of you purchased some of the lower more conservative debit spreads as they should be profitable still. ​ Current Moves I took some time on earnings day, after hours to unload some shares as well as warrants with the expectation that the sell off would push us down to around 20.00, it appears that the selloff is mostly done as we've dropped about 4.5 from Thursday intraday peak. I have begun selling cash secured puts for September expiration, 20.00 strike As I do not believe purple will drop past 18.65, which is the breakeven point for those puts. Awesome quarter but not as awesome as expected Alright, even though Purple didn't come close to my 225M estimate, it still had an amazing quarter in terms of fundaments. Purple achieved about 122M in revenue in Q1 and 165M in revenue in Q2, that is an impressive feat, especially considering they appeared to shutdown operations for a couple of weeks and that created deferred orders for Q3. Adjusted earnings of 60+ cents per share, this excludes one time charges. This is actually an impressive number and beat many of the analysts expectations. The headlines showing the miss reported on GAAP, not adjusted. Joe Megibow indicated that PRPL would have about 1B in capacity by the end of 2021, that is definitely an excellent reason to hold your investment or look for an entry. After the call there were still price upgrades from almost every analyst as the year over year growth is very very impressive, especially for a manufacturing company. ​ Tip ranks price targets as of 11PM eastern ​ Going forward I believe the worst of the sell off is over and I expect that we will likely trade in the 21-25 dollar range from now until the next earnings. I have since exited about 60K shares of stock and about 60K warrants as I believe cash secured puts are a better play for the next couple of months. I will be selling puts for 20.00. on my remaining shares I will be selling covered call with 30 strikes. I am also still holding my 22.5/25.00 debit spreads for October and I will hold my 25/30 and 25/35 debit spreads for January as I believe November could be a very very good earnings as the stock price will hopefully trade only slightly up and the accrual for warrants will be much smaller. Revenue possibilities for Q3. I believe that Q3 max revenue will likely be in the 200 Million range. This is due to PRPL running full production for 12 weeks instead of 10 and the additional 7th machine that is available for the entire quarter rather than just a single month of the quarter. I believe that Purple will not quite achieve 200M in revenue because there will be a shift into wholesale that will push down top line, slightly, this is based on the comments from the calls. I believe purple will likely only achieve about 15% more revenue in Q3 than Q2, which is still impressive. This is my quick envelope calculation. It is still early but I expect somewhere in the 180-190M range and gross Margin around 46-47%. ​ Capital structure I was optimistic that this quarter would push us to a point where we could clean up the warrant situation but it appears that we will have another quarter of accruals and reversals. I was asked by u/indonesian_activist to detail the capital structure, I will try to do that in a follow on post as it is not as clean as I'd like but I don't believe it is a show stopper as the company is still producing healthy amounts of cash, gross margin improvement and market share improvement. ​ The capital structure is also promising because the founders still have a large stake in the company. Founder led companies are very very good. My positions before and through earnings No I didn't sell anything before the call. The first transaction In my account on 8/13 is selling warrants for 5.00 (which is cheaper than they are going for now and cheaper than they went for at any other time that earnings day). i was hoping to re-purchase if the stock plummeted, which it didn't so it cost be about 75K between shares and warrants. I've broken down my first trade details and then shown a summary of every subsequent purchase. This is probably the last time I will go into this detail because it's time consuming, but i held every penny through earnings. ​ First After hours trade on 8/13, just above 8/12. ​ ​ First trade is the 509.98 shown above, each following trade is above- goes from newest to oldest as the list goes down. Current Position as of tonight I sold 400 CSP contracts on Friday and I sold my 22.5 calls for about 1.00 on Friday as well as they were almost as expensive as the day I bought them. I am now holding a naked position as I have -2910 25.00 PRPL calls in the market. I am holding the remainder of my calls and debit spreads. I hope you guys made out ok- most of the more conservative spreads are still net positive. I will not lie about my moves but I also am not going to post my moves real time as sometimes they are time sensitive. ​ https://preview.redd.it/wop4lqmsnhh51.jpg?width=444&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a20cd3225354ec8ecb02575d445f4edff29d7665 ​ https://preview.redd.it/gjp9squwnhh51.jpg?width=435&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=36fc2b3e785fc78a8335385cd13f48b3277a9015 God speed Autists. Do your own research- I learned all my investing skills through Tik Tok. ​ Matt submitted by dhsmatt2 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

##### PSA for IB investors: TSLA margin rate currently at ~77% due to their Collateral Value Pricing (CVP) policy

TLDR (for real): The CVP margin rate (currently 77.9%) is actually just based on a cap on the \$/share you can borrow. Which means the borrowable \$ amount will not go down with the price. The cap on \$/share is based on how low the stock has been in the last year.
CVP = the lowest adjusted average price over 20 consecutive trading days in the past year
CVP Margin Rate = Close Price – CVP / Close Price
What's important to note here is the nature of this equation. It's very much different from the static margin percentage that is normally applied. With the static (currently 40%) margin rate, when the stock value drops, the amount you can borrow also drops, which obviously is what causes margin calls (or with IB, immediate liquidation :) ).
But with CVP, the percent is dependent on the current price. So the rate goes down when the stock goes down. It essentially acts as a CAP on the dollar amount you can borrow. That cap is the CVP which is about \$490 per share right now. So you can only borrow \$490 per share.
If the share price were to drop again, then eventually the CVP rate would drop below the standard rate, and then the actual dollar amount you can borrow against your shares would begin dropping with the share price (like usual).
So moral of the story is that the CVP margin rate won't actually cause any unexpected liquidation. It just caps the \$/share you can borrow.
Got this response direct from IB:
IBKR continually reviews its margin requirements with the objective of striking a balance between reasonable leverage and prudent risk management.The leverage offered on TSLA shares has been reduced due to our Collateral Value Pricing (CVP) policy.
The collateral value pricing policy was put in place by IBKR's upper management team and has been completely vetted and reviewed on numerous occasions. As you note, the implementation of the collateral value price (CVP) calculation constrains the amount of margin loan value (MLV) that IBKR is willing to lend to an account based on a new collateral value price (CVP). The purpose of CVP is to protect IBKR from a scenario in which a stock has a run up in price, for which we then allow a client to purchase the stock at the top using the nominal margin rate and the stock subsequently returns to its prior lower price level in a rapid decline. If the descent is greater than the nominal margin interval the potential for loss to IBKR will increase. We seek to set CVP at a level which the stock can reasonably sustain.
The current CVP Margin rate for TSLA is approximately 77%.
Regards, Frank IBKR Risk Group
Update: They gave me some more information including TSLA's current CVP and how it's used to calculate the CVP margin rate.
IBKR's CVP Margin Policy has been in effect for a number of years. The CVP Margin Rate acts as a delta-based house charge. A net delta is calculated for your entire TSLA position which is multiplied by the CVP margin rate and stock value. This policy is not exclusive to TSLA. It applies to all equities.
Current CVP = 493.126 TSLA = 2,235.890 CVP Margin Rate = 77.9%
CVP Margin Rate = Close Price – CVP / Close Price.
(2,235.890 - 493.126) / 2,235.890 = 77.9%
Update 2: Finally!! They finally explained it!! Why couldn't they just say this to begin with!
The collateral value price is the lowest adjusted average price over 20 consecutive trading days in the past year.
submitted by benbenwilde to teslainvestorsclub [link] [comments]

##### PRPL Nurples- Why purple valuation just might make your NIPS hard - DD inside

All- I have received hundreds of DM asking where the stock is going. I have received questions such as: where do you think it stops, is it over valued, undervalued, should my mom invest, should i Yolo, should i sell and take profits? blah, blah blah. Here is some DD- stop asking me about where this ends up because I don't know for sure but I have some Feely Good estimates. I hope this post makes your nipples hard and if it doesn't you're probably a gay bear.
I am going to give you a quick run down of what my expectations are for Q2 earnings and it will include the good, the bad and the ugly. The ugly being the warrant accrual that will hurt GAAP.
First of all, There is little that needs to be determined for Q2 top-line as they have already released April and May Sales. April Sales Came in around ~62M based on my math and May Sales came in at 88M and some change. Based on these numbers, we can safely assume that we will at a minimum have somewhere around 225M in revenue for the quarter by using the average of April and May to determine June. I believe 225M to be on the low side and I have continued to up my estimates as I believe E-commerce is still thriving, especially purple. Purple continues to climb the web traffic ladder and has moved up another ~500 spots to be the 13,000 most popular site in the world.

For simplicity sake, I am going to use some historical numbers to estimate profits. If you'll look at previous posts that I've made then you'll see how I arrived at these numbers. There are some quick napkin calculations below. We can safely assume that the average wholesale selling price of a mattress is ~1350 dollars and we can assume that GM for wholesale is around 30%. This means the average cost of a mattress to manufacture is ~945 on average. From my previous posts, we knew that pre Covid the business was split by units, not by gross sales. On average, wholesale consumed 50% of capacity and DTC consumed 50% of capacity. In order to determine average DTC selling price then we can equation .5*1350 + .5*(DTC Price) = 1900. PRPL indicated their average selling price per mattress was ~1900.00, I found this in their s-3.
-----------------------------------
.5*1350 + .5*(DTC Price) = 1900=========== DTC average price is 2450.00, 1350 is average Wholesale price.
DTC Margin is ~62% Estimated
Wholesale Margin ~30% Estimated
----------------------------------
Historically, advertising costs have been about 30% of revenue. I have been tracking advertisement for purple and from a TV cost standpoint, they have not increased their commercial count at all in the last three months. See link, PRPL is still only performing 125 commercials per day. This commercial rate has held steady for 6 months.
https://www.ispot.tv/brands/tqU/purple-mattress

I believe purple has increased their ad spend online but I believe it will be proportional to their new capacity on a unit basis.
Previously purple had 6 Machines of capacity and spent 38M in advertising, I believe they will spend (7/6)*38M which is 44M or roughly 15M per month. Just because revenue is up, doesn't mean they will spend more per unit- they are capacity constrained and that is terribly inefficient.
----------------------------------
The following table shows my best guesses on their major category costs. This includes the gross Margin and the other costs subtracted from the Gross Margin.
April May June (Est) Total Revenue net revenue effect
Gross Margin from Wholesale 6M*30% 17.3*30% 20M*30% \$13M
Gross Margin from DTC 56M*62% 71M*62% 55M*62% \$112M
SG&A Costs (3.5)M (3.5)M (3.5)M (\$10.5)M
Research and Development (1)M (1)M (1)M (\$3)M
Advertising (15)M (15)M (15)M (\$45)M
Profit Non GAAP ----------- ----------- --------- 66.5M or 1.23 EPS
Warrant Accrual (\$35M)
Profit GAAP Estimated \$31.5M or .59 EPS
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
If we used 66.5M, PRPL would report 1.23 EPS on an adjusted Basis.
The warrant Accrual will unfavorably push the EPS down on a GAAP basis and we will likely see something around .59 EPS. If they can achieve this for the next 4 quarters then in a years time there is a huge potential for stock increases based on the following P/E's.

GAAP est. Non GAAP Est.
EPS Annualized \$2.36 \$4.92
Stock price assuming 8x P/E \$18.88 \$39.36
Stock Price assuming 12x P/E \$28.32 \$59.04
Stock Price assuming 15x P/E \$35.4 \$73.8
Stock Price assuming 20x P/E \$47.2 \$98.4

People may say that this is super inaccurate..... but if you look at the following cash statement then you will realize that PRPL has been generating more than 1M per day in cash for the last two months - that is absolutely insane.

purple has generated 70M in cash in 60 days.
Mark my words, PRPL is going to be more profitable than TPX this quarter. TPX reported earnings of .68 EPS today on revenue of 665M. TPX is trading at 80+ per share. if purple reports a similar .68 EPS then it would be valued about 60% lower than TPX on an EPS basis. if purple posts EPS of ~1 dollar then it would be undervalued as compared to TPX by about 80%.

I hope your NIPS are tender now. Hope this helps you understand why I believe PRPL to be so undervalued.
submitted by dhsmatt2 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

##### How to not get ruined with options - Part 2 of 4

Post 1: Basics: CALL, PUT, exercise, ITM, ATM, OTM
Post 2: Basics: Buying and Selling, the Greeks
Post 3a: Simple Strategies
Post 3b: Advanced Strategies
Post 4a: Example of trades (short puts, covered calls, and verticals)
Post 4b: Example of trades (calendars and hedges)
---
This is a follow up of the first post.
The basics: Volatility and Time
Now that you understand the basics of intrinsic and extrinsic values and how together gives a price to the premium, it is important to understand how the extrinsic value is actually calculated. The intrinsic value is easy:
The intrinsic value of a call = share price - strike (if positive, \$0 otherwise)
The intrinsic value of a put = strike - share price (if positive, \$0 otherwise)
The extrinsic value is mostly based on two variables: volatility of the share price and time.
Given the historic volatility, and the predicted volatility, how far can the share price go by the expiration date? The longer the date, and the higher the share volatility, the higher the chance of the share to change significantly.
A share that jumped from \$25 to \$50 in the past few weeks (hello NKLA!) will have much higher volatility than a share that stayed at \$50 for several months in a row. Similarly, an option expiring in two months will have a higher extrinsic value than an option expiring in one month, just because the share has more chances to move more in two months than a single month.
The extrinsic value is calculated as a combination of both the expiration date (how many days to expiration, hours even when you are close to expiration), and the implied volatility of the share.
Each strike, call or put, will have their own implied volatility. It is quite noticeable when you look at all the strikes for the same expiration. Sometimes, you can even arbitrage this between strikes and expiration dates.
The basics: Buying and Selling contracts
Until now, we have only talked about buying call and put contracts. You pay a premium to get a contract that allows you to buy (call) or sell (put) shares of a specific instrument.
As your risk is the cost of your premium, you can notice that buying options is a risky proposition.
To make a profit on the buying side:
1. You have to be directionally correct. The price must go up for calls, down for puts.
2. AND the share price move must be bigger than the premium you paid.
3. AND the share price move must happen before the option expiration.
You will notice that it is pretty unforgiving. Sure, when you are right, you can make a 100% to 1000% profit in a few months, weeks, or even days. But there is a big chance that you will suffer death by thousands of cuts with your long call or put contracts losing value every day and become worthless.
We were discussing earlier how volatile stocks can have a high extrinsic value. What happens to your option price if the share is changing a lot and suddenly calms down? The extrinsic portion of the option price will crater quickly because volatility dropped, and time is still passing every day.
The same way you can buy options, you can also sell call and put options. Instead of buying the right to exercise your ITM calls and puts, you sell that right to a 3rd party (usually market makers).
To make a profit on the selling side:
1. You have to be directionally correct.
2. OR the share price does not move as much as the premium.
3. OR the share price does not move before the option expiration.
Buying calls and puts mean that you need to have strong convictions on the share’s direction. I know that I am not good at predicting the future. However, I do believe in reversion to the mean (especially in this market :)), and I like to be paid as time is passing. In case you didn't guess yet, yes, I mostly sell options, I don’t buy them. This is a different risk, instead of death by a thousand cuts, a single trade can have a big loss, so proper contract sizing is really important.
It is worth noting that because you sold the right of exercise to a 3rd party, they can exercise at any time the option is ITM. When one party exercises, the broker randomly picks one of the option sellers and exercises the contract there. When you are on the receiving end of the exercise, it is called an assignment. As indicated earlier, for most parts, you will not be getting assigned on your short options as long as there is some extrinsic value left (because it is more profitable to sell the option than exercising it). Deep ITM options are more at risk, due to the sometimes inexistent extrinsic value. Also, the options just before the ex-dividend date when the dividend is as bigger than the extrinsic value are at risk, as it is a good way to get the dividend for a smaller cash outlay with little risk.
In summary:
• Buying a call, you hope the price to go up significantly.
• Max loss is the premium. You lose money with time.
• Max profit is infinity, minus the premium.
• Buying a put, you hope the price to go down significantly.
• Max loss is the premium. You lose money with time.
• Max profit is the strike price, minus the premium.
• Selling a call, you hope the price to not change much, or to go down.
• Max loss is infinity (just don’t sell straight calls, at most do verticals - see next post).
• Max profit is the premium. You profit from time.
• Selling a put, you hope the price to not change much, or to go up.
• Max loss is the strike price.
• Max profit is the premium. You profit from time.
The Greeks
Each option contract has a complex formula to calculate its premium (Black-Scholes is usually a good initial option pricing model to calculate the premiums).
Things that will determine the option premium are:
• Current share price
• Strike price
• Call or Put
• American or European style options
• Cost of money (or risk-free rate)
• Volatility
• And the time to expiration
There are four key values calculated from the current option price: delta, gamma, theta, and vega. In the options world, we call them ‘the Greeks’.
Delta is how correlated your option price is compared to the underlying share price. By definition 100 shares have a delta of 100. If an option has a delta of 50, it means that if the share price increases by \$1, the new price of your option means that you earned \$50. Conversely, a drop of \$1 means you will lose \$50.
Each call contract bought will have a delta from 0 to 100. A deep ITM call will have a delta close to 100. An ATM call will have a delta around 50. Note that on expiration day, as the intrinsic value disappears, an ATM call behaves like the share price, with a delta close to 100. Buying a put will have a negative delta. A deep ITM put will have a delta close to -100. Selling a call will have a negative delta, selling a put will have a positive delta.
Gamma is the rate of change of delta as the underlying share price changes. Unless you are a market maker or doing gamma scalping (profiting from small changes in the share price), you should not worry too much about gamma.
Theta is how much money you lose or profit per day (week-end included!) on your option contracts. If you bought a call/put, your theta will be negative (you lose money every day due to the time passing closer to the contract expiration, and your option price slowly eroding). If you sold a call/put, your theta will be positive (you earn money every day from the premium). It is important to note that the theta accelerates as you get closer to the expiration. For the same strike and volatility, a theta for an option that has one month left will be smaller than the theta for an option that has one week left, and bigger than an option that has 6 months left. In the third post, I will explain how you can take advantage of this.
FWIW, with the current volatility, I get 0.1% to 0.2% of Return On Risk per day, so roughly 35% to 70% of return annualized. I don’t expect these numbers to keep like this for a long time, but I will profit as long as we are in this sideways market. I also have an overall positive delta, so I will benefit as the market goes up, and theta gain will soften the blow when the market goes down.
Vega is how much your option price will increase or decrease when the implied volatility of the share price increase by 1%. If you bought some puts or calls, your vega will be positive, as your extrinsic value will increase when volatility increases. Conversely, if you sold some puts or calls, your vega will be negative. On the sell side, you want the actual volatility to be lower than the implied volatility to make money.
This is why we often say that you sell options to sell the volatility. When volatility is high, sell options. When volatility is low, buy options. Not the opposite. This also explains why some people lose money when playing stock earnings despite being directionally correct. Before earnings, the option price takes into account the expected stock price change, so the volatility is significantly higher than usual. They bought an expensive call or put, numbers are out, share price moves in the correct direction, but because suddenly the volatility dropped (no uncertainty about the earnings anymore), the extrinsic value of the option got crushed, and offset the increase in intrinsic value. The result is not as much profit as expected or even a loss.
Bid/Ask spread
Options are less liquid than the corresponding shares, especially given the sheer quantity of strikes and expiration dates. The gap between the bid and the ask can be pretty big. If you are not careful about how you enter and exit the trade, you will transform a profitable trade into a losing one. Due to the small contract costs, the bid/ask spread adds up quickly, and with the trading fees, they can represent 10% or more of your profit. Beware!
Never ever buy or sell an option at the market price. Always use a limit order, start with the mid-price, or be even more aggressive. See if someone bites, it happens. If not, give up \$0.05 or less, wait a bit longer, and do it again. Be patient. If you are at mid-price between the bid and the ask, and you think this is a fair price, and the market or time is on your side, again just be patient. It is better to not enter a trade that is not in your own terms than overpaying/underselling and reducing your profit/risk ratio too much.
LEAPs
Leap options have a very long expiration date. Usually one year or more. ETF indexes, like SPY, can have leaps of 1, 2, or 3 years away. They offer some advantages as they have a low theta. A deep ITM Leap can behave like the stock with 30% of the cost. Just remember that if the share drops by 30% long term, you will lose everything. Watch out! This is a personal experience of mine in 2008, where I diversified away from a few companies to many more companies by buying multiple leaps. It was akin to changing 100 shares into options with a delta of 250. However, when the market tanked, all these deep ITM leaps lost significantly (more than if I only had 100 shares). Good lesson learned. You win some, you lose some.
Number of shares
The vast majority of options trades at 100 shares per contract. But during share splits, or reverse splits, company reorganizations, or special dividend distributions, the numbers of shares can change. The options are automatically updated.
The 1:N splits are easily converted as you just get more contracts, and your strike is getting adjusted. For example, let’s say you own 1 contract of ABC with a strike of \$200 controlling 100 shares (so exposure to \$20k). Then the company splits 1:4, you are going to get 4 contracts with a strike of \$50, with each contract controlling 100 shares (so still the same exposure of \$20k).
The N:1 reverse splits are a tad more complex. Say you have 1 contract of ABC with a strike of \$1, controlling 100 shares (so exposure to \$100). Then the company reverse splits 5:1, you are going to still get 1 contract, but with a strike of \$5, with each contract controlling 20 shares (so still the same exposure of \$100). You will still be able to trade these 20 shares contracts but they will slowly trade less and less and disappear over time, as new 100 shares contracts will be created alongside.
Brokers and fees
In my experience, ThinkOrSwim (TOS owned by TD Ameritrade, being bought by Schwab) is one of the very best brokers to trade options. The software on PC, Mac, iPad, or iPhone is top-notch. Very easy to use, very intuitive, very responsive. Pricing on contracts dropped recently, it’s now \$0.65 per contract, with \$0 for exercise or assignment. You may actually be able to negotiate an even better price.
I also have Interactive Brokers (IB), and that’s the other side of the spectrum. The software is very buggy, unstable, unintuitive, and slow to update. I tried few options trades and got too frustrated to continue. Too bad, it has very good margin rates (although if you are an option seller it is not really needed, as you receive cash when you open your trades). However, it’s perfectly acceptable to trade plain ETFs and shares.
Market Markers
Most of the options you buy or sell from will be provided by the Markets Makers. Do not expect that you will get good deals from them.
You will see in the third post how you selling a put and buying a call is equivalent to buy a share. When you buy/sell a call / put from the market makers, you are guaranteed that they will hedge their corresponding positions by buying/selling a share and the opposite options (put/call).
The next post will introduce you to simple option strategies.
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Post 1: Basics: CALL, PUT, exercise, ITM, ATM, OTM
Post 2: Basics: Buying and Selling, the Greeks
Post 3a: Simple Strategies
Post 3b: Advanced Strategies
Post 4a: Example of trades (short puts, covered calls, and verticals)
Post 4b: Example of trades (calendars and hedges)
submitted by _WhatchaDoin_ to investing [link] [comments]

##### The Mouthbreather's Guide to the Galaxy

 Alright CYKAS, Drill Sgt. Retarded TQQQ Burry is in the house. Listen up, I'm gonna train yo monkey asses to make some motherfucking money. ​ “Reeee can’t read, strike?” - random_wsb_autist Bitch you better read if you want your Robinhood to look like this: gainz, bitch ​ ​ Why am I telling you this? Because I like your dumb asses. Even dickbutts like cscqb4. And because I like seeing Wall St. fucking get rekt. Y’all did good until now, and Wall St. is salty af. Just google for “retail traders” news if you haven’t seen it, and you’ll see the salty tears of Wall Street assholes. And I like salty Wall St. assholes crying like bitches. https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/retail-investors-are-crushing-hedge-funds-again ​ That said, some of you here are really motherfucking dense & the sheer influx of retardation has been driving away some of the more knowledgeable folks on this sub. In fact, in my last post, y'all somehow managed to downvote to shit the few guys that really understood the points I was making and tried to explain it to you poo-slinging apes. Stop that shit yo! A lot of you need to sit the fuck down, shut your fucking mouth and listen. So I'm going to try and turn you rag-tag band of dimwits into a respectable army of peasants that can clap some motherfucking Wall Street cheeks. Then, I'm going to give you a mouthbreather-proof trade that I don't think even you knuckleheads can mess up (though I may be underestimating you). If you keep PM-ing me about your stupid ass losses after this, I will find out where you live and personally, PERSONALLY, shit on your doorstep. This is going to be a long ass post. Read the damned post. I don't care if you're dyslexic, use text-to-speech. Got ADHD? Pop your addys, rub one out, and focus! Are you 12? Make sure to go post in the paper trading contest thread first. ​ THE RULES: Understand that most of this sub has the critical reading skills of a 6 year old and the attention span of a goldfish. As such, my posts are usually written with a level of detail aimed at the lowest common denominator. A lot of details on the thesis are omitted, but that doesn't mean that the contents in the post are all there is to it. If I didn't do that, every post'd have to be longer than this one, and 98% of you fucks wouldn't read it anyway. Fuck that. Understand that my style of making plays is finding the >10+ baggers that are underpriced. As such, ALL THE GOD DAMN PLAYS I POST ARE HIGH-RISK / HIGH-REWARD. Only play what you can afford to risk. And stop PM-ing me the second the market goes the other way, god damn it! If you can't manage your own positions, I'm going to teach your ass the basics. Do you have no idea what you're doing and have a question? Google it first. Then google it again. Then Bing it, for good measure. Might as well check PornHub too, you never know. THEN, if you still didn't find the answer, you ask. This sub gives me Tourette's. If you got a problem with that, well fuck you. ​ This shit is targeted at the mouthbreathers, but maybe more knowledgeable folk’ll find some useful info, idk. How do you know if you’re in the mouthbreather category? If your answer to any of the following questions is yes, then you are: Are you new to trading? Are you unable to manage your own positions? Did you score into the negatives on the SAT Critical Reading section? Do you think Delta is just an airline? Do you buy high & sell low? Do you want to buy garbage like Hertz or American Airlines because it's cheap? Did you buy USO at the bottom and are now proud of yourself for making \$2? Do you think stOnKs oNLy Go uP because Fed brrr? Do you think I'm trying to sell you puts? If you take a trade you see posted on this sub and are down, do you PM the guy posting it? Do you generally PM people on this sub to ask them basic questions? Is your mouth your primary breathing apparatus? Well I have just the thing for you! ​ ​ Table of Contents: I. Maybe, just maybe, I know what I’m talking about II. Post-mortem of the February - March 2020 Great Depression III. Mouthbreather's bootcamp on managing a position – THE TECHNICALS IV. Busting your retarded myths V. LIQUIDITY NUKE INBOUND VI. The mouthbreather-proof trade - The Akimbo VII. Quick hints for non-mouthbreathers ​ ​ Chapter I - Maybe, just maybe, I know what I’m talking about I'm not here to rip you off. Every fucking time I post something, a bunch of dumbasses show up saying I'm selling you puts or whatever the fuck retarded thoughts come through their caveman brains. "hurr durr OP retarded, OP sell puts" - random_wsb_autist Sit down, Barney, I'm not here to scam you for your 3 cents on OTM puts. Do I always get it right? Of course not, dumbasses. Eurodollar play didn't work out (yet). Last TQQQ didn't work out (yet). That’s just how it goes. Papa Buffet got fucked on airlines. Plain retard Burry bought GME. What do you fucking expect? Meanwhile, I keep giving y'all good motherfucking plays: 28/10/2019: "I'ma say this again, in case you haven't heard me the first time. BUY \$JNK PUTS NOW!". Strike: "11/15, 1/17 and 6/19". "This thing can easily go below 50, so whatever floats your boat. Around \$100 strike is a good entry point." 3/9/2020: "I mean it's a pretty obvious move, but \$JNK puts." 3/19/2020, 12pm: "UVXY put FDs are free money." & “Buy \$UVXY puts expiring tomorrow if we're still green at 3pm. Trust me.” 3/24/2020: “\$UUP 3/27 puts at \$27.5 or \$27 should be 10-baggers once the bill passes. I'd expect it to go to around \$26.” And of course, the masterpiece that was the TQQQ put play. Chapter II. Post-mortem of the February - March 2020 Great Depression Do you really understand what happened? Let's go through it. I got in puts on 2/19, right at the motherfucking top, TQQQ at \$118. I told you on 2/24 TQQQ (\$108) was going to shit, and to buy fucking puts, \$90ps, \$70ps, \$50ps, all the way to 3/20 \$30ps. You think I just pulled that out of my ass? You think I just keep getting lucky, punks? Do you have any idea how unlikely that is? Well, let's take a look at what the fuckstick Kevin Cook from Zacks wrote on 3/5: How Many Sigmas Was the Flash Correction Plunge? "Did you know that last week's 14% plunge in the S&P 500 SPY was so rare, by statistical measures, that it shouldn't happen once but every 14,000 years?" "By several measures, it was about a 5-sigma move, something that's not "supposed to" happen more than once in your lifetime -- or your prehistoric ancestors' lifetimes! "According to general statistical principles, a 4-sigma event is to be expected about every 31,560 days, or about 1 trading day in 126 years. And a 5-sigma event is to be expected every 3,483,046 days, or about 1 day every 13,932 years." ​ On 3/5, TQQQ closed at \$81. I just got lucky, right? You should buy after a 5-sigma move, right? That's what fuckstick says: "Big sigma moves happen all the time in markets, more than any other field where we collect and analyze historical data, because markets are social beasts subject to "wild randomness" that is not found in the physical sciences. This was the primary lesson of Nassim Taleb's 2007 book The Black Swan, written before the financial crisis that found Wall Street bankers completely ignorant of randomness and the risks of ruin." I also took advantage of the extreme 5-sigma sell-off by grabbing a leveraged ETF on the Nasdaq 100, the ProShares UltraPro QQQ TQQQ. In my plan, while I might debate the merits of buying AAPL or MSFT for hours, I knew I could immediately buy them both with TQQQ and be rewarded very quickly after the 14% plunge." Ahahaha, fuckstick bought TQQQ at \$70, cuz that's what you do after a random 5-sigma move, right? How many of you dumbasses did the same thing? Don't lie, I see you buying 3/5 on this TQQQ chart: https://preview.redd.it/9ks35zdla5151.png?width=915&format=png&auto=webp&s=2c90d08494c52a1b874575ee233624e61ac27620 Meanwhile, on 3/3, I answered the question "Where do you see this ending up at in the next couple weeks? I have 3/20s" with "under 30 imo". ​ Well good fucking job, because a week later on 3/11, TQQQ closed at \$61, and it kept going. Nomura: Market staring into the abyss "The plunge in US equities yesterday (12 March) pushed weekly returns down to 7.7 standard deviations below the norm. In statistical science, the odds of a greater-than seven-sigma event of this kind are astronomical to the point of being comical (about one such event every 160 billion years). Let's see what Stephen Mathai-Davis, CFA, CQF, WTF, BBQ, Founder and CEO of Q.ai - Investing Reimagined, a Forbes Company, and a major fucktard has to say at this point: ​ "Our AI models are telling us to buy SPY (the SPDR S&P500 ETF and a great proxy for US large-cap stocks) but since all models are based on past data, does it really make sense? " "While it may or may not make sense to buy stocks, it definitely is a good time to sell “volatility.” And yes, you can do it in your brokerage account! Or, you can ask your personal finance advisor about it." "So what is the takeaway? I don’t know if now is the right time to start buying stocks again but it sure looks like the probabilities are in your favor to say that we are not going to experience another 7 standard deviation move in U.S. Stocks. OTM (out-of-the-money) Put Spreads are a great way to get some bullish exposure to a rally in the SPY while also shorting such rich volatility levels." Good job, fuckfaces. Y'all bought this one too, admit it. I see you buying on this chart: https://preview.redd.it/s9344geza5151.png?width=915&format=png&auto=webp&s=ebaef4b1414d901e6dafe354206ba39eb03cb199 Well guess what, by 3/18, a week later, we did get another 5 standard deviation move. TQQQ bottomed on 3/18 at \$32.73. Still think that was just luck, punk? You know how many sigmas that was? Over 12 god-damn sigmas. 12 standard deviations. I'd have a much better chance of guessing everyone's buttcoin private key, in a row, on the first try. That's how unlikely that is. https://preview.redd.it/luz0s3kbb5151.png?width=587&format=png&auto=webp&s=7542973d56c42e13efd3502331ac6cc5aea42630 "Hurr durr you said it's going to 0, so you're retarded because it didn't go to 0" - random_wsb_autist Yeah, fuckface, because the Fed bailed ‘em out. Remember the \$150b “overnight repo” bazooka on 3/17? That’s what that was, a bailout. A bailout for shitty funds and market makers like Trump's handjob buddy Kenny Griffin from Citadel. Why do you think Jamie Dimon had a heart attack in early March? He saw all the dogshit that everyone put on his books. ​ https://preview.redd.it/8fqvt37ama151.png?width=3711&format=png&auto=webp&s=0b06ee5101685c5274c6641a62ee9eb1a2a3f3ee ​ ​ Read: https://dealbreaker.com/2020/01/griffin-no-show-at-white-house https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/11/bank-ceos-convene-in-washington-with-president-trump-on-coronavirus.html https://www.proactiveinvestors.co.uk/companies/news/914736/market-makers--didn-t-show-up-for-work--macro-risk-ceo-says-914736.html https://www.chicagobusiness.com/finance-banking/chicago-trading-firms-seek-more-capital https://www.housingwire.com/articles/did-non-qm-just-disappear-from-the-market/ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-22/bruised-hedge-funds-ask-clients-for-fresh-cash-to-buy-the-dip https://fin24.com/Markets/Bonds/rand-bonds-rally-after-reserve-bank-intervention-20200320 ​ Yup, everyone got clapped on their stupidly leveraged derivatives books. It seems Citadel is “too big to fail”. On 3/18, the payout on 3/20 TQQQ puts alone if it went to 0 was \$468m. And every single TQQQ put expiration would have had to be paid. Tens or hundreds of billions on TQQQ puts alone. I’d bet my ass Citadel was on the hook for a big chunk of those. And that’s just a drop in the bucket compared to all the other blown derivative trades out there. ​ https://preview.redd.it/9ww27p2qb5151.png?width=2485&format=png&auto=webp&s=78f24265f3ea08fdbb37a4325f15ad9b61b0c694 Y’all still did good, 3/20 closed at \$35. That’s \$161m/\$468m payoff just there. I even called you the bottom on 3/17, when I saw that bailout: ​ "tinygiraffe21 1 point 2 months ago Haha when? I’m loading up in 4/17 25 puts" "dlkdev Scratch that, helicopter money is here." "AfgCric 1 point 2 months ago What does that mean?" "It means the Fed & Trump are printing trillions with no end in sight. If they go through with this, this was probably the bottom." ​ "hurr durr, it went lower on 3/18 so 3/17 wasn't the bottom" - random_wsb_autist Idiot, I have no way of knowing that Billy boy Ackman was going to go on CNBC and cry like a little bitch to make everyone dump, so he can get out of his shorts. Just like I have no way of knowing when the Fed decides to do a bailout. But you react to that, when you see it. Do you think "Oh no world's ending" and go sell everything? No, dumbass, you try to figure out what Billy's doing. And in this case it was pretty obvious, Billy saw the Fed train coming and wanted to close his shorts. So you give the dude a hand, quick short in and out, and position for Billy dumping his short bags. Video of Billy & the Fed train ​ Here's what Billy boy says: “But if they don’t, and the government takes the right steps, this hedge could be worth zero, and the stock market could go right back up to where it was. So we made the decision to exit.” https://www.businessinsider.sg/bill-ackman-explains-coronavirus-trade-single-best-all-time-podcast-2020-5 Also, “the single best trade of all time.” my ass, it was only a 100-bagger. I gave y’all a 150-bagger. So how could I catch that? Because it wasn't random, yo. And I'm here to teach your asses how to try to spot such potential moves. But first, the technical bootcamp. ​ Chapter III. Mouthbreather's bootcamp on managing a position – THE TECHNICALS ​ RULE 1. YOU NEVER BUY OPTIONS AT OPEN. You NEVER OVERPAY for an option. You never FOMO into buying too fast. You NEVER EVER NEVER pump the premium on a play. I saw you fuckers buying over 4k TQQQ 5/22 \$45 puts in the first minutes of trading. You pumped the premium to over \$0.50 dudes. The play's never going to work if you do that, because you give the market maker free delta, and he's going to hedge that against you. Let me explain simply: ​ Let's say a put on ticker \$X at strike \$50 is worth \$1, and a put at strike \$51 is worth \$2. If you all fomo in at once into the same strike, the market maker algos will just pull the asks higher. If you overpay at \$2 for the \$50p, the market maker will just buy \$51ps for \$2 and sell you \$50ps for 2\$. Or he'll buy longer-dated \$50ps and sell you shorter-dated \$50ps. Max risk for him is now 0, max gain is \$1. You just gave him free downside insurance, so of course he's going to start going long. And you just traded against yourself, congrats. ​ You need to get in with patience, especially if you see other autists here wanting to go in at the same time. Don't step on each other's toes. You put in an order, and you wait for it to fill for a couple of seconds. If it doesn't fill, AND the price of the option hasn't moved much recently, you can bump the bid \$0.01. And you keep doing that a few times. Move your strikes, if needed. Only get a partial fill or don't get a fill at all? You cancel your bid. Don't fucking leave it hanging there, or you're going to put a floor on the price. Let the mm algos chill out and go again later. ​ RULE 2. WATCH THE TIME. Algos are especially active at x:00, x:02, x:08, x:12, x:30 and x:58. Try not to buy at those times. RULE 3. YOU USE MULTIPLE BROKERS. Don't just roll with Robinhood, you're just gimping yourself. If you don't have another one, open up a tasty, IB, TD, Schwab, whatever. But for cheap faggy puts (or calls), Robinhood is the best. If you want to make a play for which the other side would think "That's free money!", Robinhood is the best. Because Citadel will snag that free money shit like no other. Seriously, if you don't have a RH account, open one. It's great for making meme plays. ​ RULE 4. YOU DON'T START A TRADE WITH BIG POSITIONS. Doesn't matter how big or small your bankroll is. If you go all-in, you're just gambling, and the odds are stacked against you. You need to have extra cash to manage your positions. Which leads to RULE 5. MANAGING YOUR WINNERS: Your position going for you? Good job! Now POUND THAT SHIT! And again. Move your strikes to cheaper puts/calls, and pound again. And again. Snowball those gains. RULE 6A. POUND THOSE \$0.01 PUTS: So you bought some puts and they’re going down? Well, the moment they reach \$0.01, YOU POUND THOSE PUTS (assuming there’s enough time left on them, not shit expiring in 2h). \$0.01 puts have amazing risk/return around the time they reach \$0.01. This is not as valid for calls. Long explanation why, but the gist of it is this: you know how calls have unlimited upside while puts have limited upside? Well it’s the reverse of that. RULE 6B. MANAGING YOUR LOSERS: Your position going against you? Do you close the position, take your loss porn and post it on wsb? WRONG DUMBASS. You manage that by POUNDING THAT SHIT. Again and again. You don't manage losing positions by closing. That removes your gainz when the market turns around. You ever close a position, just to have it turn out it would have been a winner afterwards? Yeah, don't do that. You manage it by opening other positions. Got puts? Buy calls. Got calls? Buy puts. Turn positions into spreads. Buy spreads. Buy the VIX. Sell the VIX. They wanna pin for OPEX? Sell them options. Not enough bankroll to sell naked? Sell spreads. Make them fight you for your money, motherfuckers, don't just give it away for free. When you trade, YOU have the advantage of choosing when and where to engage. The market can only react. That's your edge, so USE IT! Like this: ​ Example 1: Initial TQQQ 5/22 position = \$5,000. Starts losing? You pound it. ​ https://preview.redd.it/gq938ty8e5151.png?width=944&format=png&auto=webp&s=734ab7ed517f0e6822bfaaed5765d1272de398d1 Total pounded in 5/22 TQQQ puts = \$10,824. Unfortunately expired worthless (but also goes to show I'm not selling you puts, dickwads) Then the autists show up: "Hahaha you lost all your money nice job you fucking idiot why do you even live?" - cscqb4 Wrong fuckface. You see the max pain at SPX 2975 & OPEX pin coming? Sell them some calls or puts (or spreads). ​ https://preview.redd.it/7nv23fr41a151.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=14a8879c975646ffbfe2942ca1982bfabfcf90df Sold 9x5/20 SPX [email protected], bam +\$6,390. Still wanna pin? Well have some 80x5/22 TQQQ \$80cs, bam anotha +\$14,700. ​ https://preview.redd.it/1iqtpmc71a151.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=df9b954131b0877f4acc43038b4a5a4acf544237 +\$21,090 - \$10,824 = +\$10,266 => Turned that shit into a +94.85% gain. ​ .cscqb4 rn ​ You have a downside position, but market going up or nowhere? You play that as well. At least make some money back, if not profit. ​ Example 2: ​ 5/22, long weekend coming right? So you use your brain & try to predict what could happen over the 3-day weekend. Hmm, 3 day weekend, well you should expect either a shitty theta-burn or maybe the pajama traders will try to pooomp that shite on the low volume. Well make your play. I bet on the shitty theta burn, but could be the other, idk, so make a small play. ​ Sold some ES_F spreads (for those unaware, ES is a 50x multiplier, so 1 SPX = 2 ES = 10 SPY, approximately). -47x 2955/2960 bear call spreads for \$2.5. Max gain is \$2.5, max loss is 2960-2955 = \$5. A double-or-nothing basically. That's \$5,875 in premium, max loss = 2x premium = \$11,750. Well, today comes around and futures are pumping. Up to 3,014 now. Do you just roll over? You think I'm gonna sit and take it up the ass? Nah bros that's not how you trade, you fucking fight them. How? I have: 47x 2960 calls -47x 2955 calls ​ Pajama traders getting all up in my grill? Well then I buy back 1 of the 2955 calls. Did that shit yesterday when futures were a little over 2980, around 2982-ish. Paid \$34.75, initially shorted at \$16.95, so booked a -\$892 loss, for now. But now what do I have? ​ 46x 2955/2960 bear calls 1x 2960 long call ​ So the fuckers can pump it. In fact, the harder they pump it, the more I make. Each \$2.5 move up in the futures covers the max loss for 1 spread. With SPX now at ~3015, that call is \$55 ITM. Covers 24/46 contracts rn. If they wanna run it up, at 3070 it's break-even. Over that, it's profit. I'll sell them some bear call spreads over 3050 if they run it there too. They gonna dump it? well under 2960 it's profit time again. They wanna do a shitty pin at 3000 today? Well then I'll sell them some theta there. Later edit: that was written yesterday. Got out with a loss of only \$1.5k out of the max \$5,875. Not bad. And that, my dudes, is how you manage a position. ​ RULE 7 (ESPECIALLY FOR BEARS). YOU DON'T KEEP EXTRA CASH IN YOUR BROKER ACCOUNT. You don't do it with Robinhood, because it's a shitty dumpsterfire of a broker. But you don't do it with other brokers either. Pull that shit out. Preferably to a bank that doesn't play in the markets either, use a credit union or some shit. Why? Because you're giving the market free liquidity. Free margin loans. Squeeze that shit out, make them work for it. Your individual cash probably doesn't make a dent, but a million autists with an extra \$1200 trumpbucks means \$1.2b. That's starting to move the needle. You wanna make a play, use instant deposits. And that way you don't lose your shit when your crappy ass broker or bank gets its ass blown up on derivative trades. Even if it's FDIC or SIPC insured, it's gonna take time until you see that money again. ​ ​ Chapter IV. BUSTING YOUR RETARDED MYTHS ​ MYTH 1 - STONKS ONLY GO UP ​ Do you think the market can go up forever? Do you think stOnKs oNLy Go uP because Fed brrr? Do you think SPX will be at 5000 by the end of the month? Do you think \$1.5 trillion is a good entry point for stonks like AAPL or MSFT? Do you want to buy garbage like Hertz or American Airlines because it's cheap? Did you buy USO at the bottom and are now proud of yourself for making \$2? Well, this section is for you! Let's clear up the misconception that stonks only go up while Fed brrrs. ​ What's your target for the SPX top? Think 3500 by the end of the year? 3500 by September? 4000? 4500? 5000? Doesn't matter, you can plug in your own variables. ​ Let's say SPX only goes up, a moderate 0.5% each period as a compounded avg. (i.e. up a bit down a bit whatever, doesn't matter as long as at the end of your period, if you look back and do the math, you'll get that number). Let's call this variable BRRR = 0.005. ​ Can you do the basic math to calculate the value at the end of x periods? Or did you drop out in 5th grade? Doesn't matter if not, I'll teach you. ​ ​ Let's say our period is one week. That is, SPX goes up on average 0.5% each week on Fed BRRR: 2950 * (1.005^x), where x is the number of periods (weeks in this case) ​ So, after 1 month, you have: 2950 * (1.005^4) = 3009 After 2 months: 2950 * (1.005^8) = 3070 End of the year? 2950 * (1.005^28) = 3392 ​ Now clearly, we're already at 3015 on the futures, so we're moving way faster than that. More like at a speed of BRRR = 1%/wk ​ 2950 * (1.01^4) = 3069 2950 * (1.01^8) = 3194 2950 * (1.01^28) = 3897 ​ ​ Better, but still slower than a lot of permabulls would expect. In fact, some legit fucks are seriously predicting SPX 4000-4500 by September. Like this dude, David Hunter, "Contrarian Macro Strategist w/40+ years on Wall Street". IDIOTIC. https://twitter.com/DaveHcontrarian/status/1263066368414568448 ​ That'd be 2950 * (BRRR^12) = 4000 => BRRR = 1.0257 and 2950 * (BRRR^12) = 4500 => BRRR = 1.0358, respectively. ​ Here's why that can't happen, no matter the amount of FED BRRR: Leverage. Compounded Leverage. ​ There's currently over \$100b in leveraged etfs with a 2.5x avg. leverage. And that's just the ones I managed to tally, there's a lot of dogshit small ones on top of that. TQQQ alone is now at almost \$6b in AUM (topped in Fed at a little over \$7b). ​ Now, let's try to estimate what happens to TQQQ's AUM when BRRR = 1.0257. 3XBRRR = 1.0771. Take it at 3XBRRR = 1.07 to account for slippage in a medium-volatility environment and ignore the fact that the Nasdaq-100 would go up more than SPX anyway. ​ \$6,000,000,000 * (1.07^4) = \$7,864,776,060 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.07^8) = \$10,309,100,000 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.07^12) = \$13,513,100,000 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.07^28) = \$39,893,000,000. ​ What if BRRR = 1.0358? => 3XBRR = 1.1074. Take 3XBRRR = 1.10. \$6,000,000,000 * (1.1^4) = \$8,784,600,000 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.1^8) = \$12,861,500,000 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.1^12) = \$18,830,600,000 \$6,000,000,000 * (1.1^28) = \$86,526,000,000 ​ And this would have to get 3x leveraged every day. And this is just for TQQQ. ​ Let's do an estimation for all leveraged funds. \$100b AUM, 2.5 avg. leverage factor, BRRR = 1.0257 => 2.5BRRR = 1.06425 ​ \$100b * (1.06^4) = \$128.285b \$100b * (1.06^8) = \$159.385b \$100b * (1.06^12) = \$201.22b \$100b * (1.06^28) = \$511.169b ​ That'd be \$1.25 trillion sloshing around each day. And the market would have to lose each respective amount of cash into these leveraged funds. Think the market can do that? You can play around with your own variables. But understand that this is just a small part of the whole picture, many other factors go into this. It's a way to put a simple upper limit on an assumption, to check if it's reasonable. ​ In the long run, it doesn't matter if the Fed goes BRRR, if TQQQ takes in it's share of 3XBRRR. And the Fed can't go 3XBRRR, because then TQQQ would take in 9XBRRR. And on top of this, you have a whole pile of leveraged derivatives on top of these leveraged things. Watch (or rewatch) this: Selena Gomez & Richard H. Thaler Explaining Synthetic CDO through BLACKJACK ​ My general point, at the mouth-breather level, is that Fed BRRR cannot be infinite, because leverage. And these leveraged ETFs are flawed instruments in the first place. It didn't matter when they started out. TQQQ and SQQQ started out at \$8m each. For the banks providing the swaps, for the market providing the futures contracts, whatever counter-party to whatever instrument they would use, that was fine. Because it balanced out. When TQQQ made a million, SQQQ lost a million (minus a small spread, which was the bank's profit). Bank was happy, in the long run things would even out. Slippage and spreads and fees would make them money. But then something happened. Stonks only went up. And leveraged ETFs got bigger and more and more popular. And so, TQQQ ended up being \$6-7b, while SQQQ was at \$1b. And the same goes for all the other ETFs. Long leveraged ETF AUM became disproportionate to short AUM. And it matters a whole fucking lot. Because if you think of the casino, TQQQ walks up every day and says "I'd like to put \$18b on red", while SQQQ walks up and says "I'd only like to put \$3b on black". And that, in turn, forces the banks providing the swaps to either eat shit with massive losses, or go out and hedge. Probably a mix of both. But it doesn't matter if the banks are hedged, someone else is on the other side of those hedges anyway. Someone's eating a loss. Can think of it as "The Market", in general, eating the loss. And there's only so much loss the market can eat before it craps itself. ​ If you were a time traveller, how much money do you think you could make by trading derivatives? Do you think you could make \$20 trillion? You know the future prices after all... But no, you couldn't. There isn't enough money out there to pay you. So you'd move the markets by blowing them up. Call it the Time-travelling WSB Autist Paradox. ​ If you had a bucket with a hole in the bottom, even if you poured an infinite amount of water into it, it would never be full. Because there's a LIQUIDITY SINK, just like there is one in the markets. And that, my mouth-breathing friends, is the reason why FED BRRR cannot be infinite. Or alternatively, "STONKS MUST GO BOTH UP AND DOWN". ​ MYTH 2 - YOU CAN'T TIME THE MARKET ​ On Jan 14, 2020, I predicted this: Assuming that corona doesn't become a problem, "AAPL: Jan 28 \$328.3, Jan 31 \$316.5, April 1 \$365.7, May 1 \$386, July 1 \$429 December 31 \$200." Now take a look at the AAPL chart in January. After earnings AAPL peaked at \$327.85. On 1/31, after the 1st hour of trading, when the big boys make moves, it was at \$315.63. Closed 1/31 at \$309.51. Ya think I pulled this one out of my ass too? Yes you can time it. Flows, motherfucker, flows. Money flow moves everything. And these days, we have a whole lot of RETARDED FLOW. Can't even call it dumb flow, because it literally doesn't think. Stuff like: ​ ETF flows. If MSFT goes up and AAPL goes down, part of that flow is going to move from AAPL to MSFT. Even if MSFT flash-crashes up to \$1000, the ETF will still "buy". Because it's passive. Option settlement flows. Once options expire, money is going to flow from one side to another, and that my friends is accurately predictable from the data. Index rebalancing flows Buyback flows 401k passive flows Carry trade flows Tax day flows Flows of people front-running the flows ​ And many many others. Spot the flow, and you get an edge. How could I predict where AAPL would be after earnings within 50 cents and then reverse down to \$316 2 days later? FLOWS MOTHERFUCKER FLOWS. The market was so quiet in that period, that is was possible to precisely figure out where it ended up. Why the dump after? Well, AAPL earnings (The 8-K) come out on a Wednesday. The next morning, after market opens the 10-Q comes out. And that 10-Q contains a very important nugget of information: the latest number of outstanding shares. But AAPL buybacks are regular as fuck. You can predict the outstanding shares before the market gets the 10-Q. And that gives you EDGE. Which leads to ​ MYTH 3 - BUYBACKS DON'T MATTER ​ Are you one of those mouthbreathers that parrots the phrase "buybacks are just a tax-efficient way to return capital to shareholders"? Well sit the fuck down, I have news for you. First bit of news, you're dumb as shit. Second bit: ​ On 1/28, AAPL's market cap is closing_price x free_float_outstanding_shares. But that's not the REAL MARKET CAP. Because the number of outstanding shares is OLD AS FUCK. When the latest number comes out, the market cap changes instantly. And ETFs start moving, and hedges start being changed, and so on. ​ "But ETFs won't change the number of shares they hold, they will still hold the same % of AAPL in the index" - random_wsb_autist ​ Oh my fucking god you're dumb as fuck. FLOWS change. And the next day, when TQQQ comes by and puts its massive \$18b dong on the table, the market will hedge that differently. And THAT CAN BE PREDICTED. That's why AAPL was exactly at \$316 1 hour after the market opened on 1/31. ​ So, what can you use to spot moves? Let me show you: Market topped on 2/19. Here’s SPY. I even marked interesting dates for you with vertical lines. ​ https://preview.redd.it/7agm171eh5151.png?width=3713&format=png&auto=webp&s=d94b90dcd634c8dc688925585bf0a02c3299f71b Nobody could have seen it coming, right? WRONG AGAIN. Here: ​ https://preview.redd.it/i1kdp3cgh5151.png?width=3713&format=png&auto=webp&s=7a1e086e9217846547efd3b6c5249f4a7ebe6d9e In fact, JPYUSD gave you two whole days to see it. Those are NOT normal JPYUSD moves. But hey maybe it’s just a fluke? Wrong again. ​ https://preview.redd.it/fsyhenckh5151.png?width=3693&format=png&auto=webp&s=03200e10b008257ae15d40b474c4cf4d8c23670f Forex showed you that all over the place. Why? FLOWS MOTHERFUCKER FLOWS. When everything moves like that, it means the market needs CASH. It doesn’t matter why, but remember people pulling cash out of ATMs all over the world? Companies drawing massive revolvers? Just understand what this flow means. The reversal: https://preview.redd.it/4xe97l0oh5151.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=07aaa93f6b1d8f542101e40e431edccbc109918f https://preview.redd.it/v6i0pdmoh5151.png?width=1338&format=png&auto=webp&s=74d5589961db2f978d4d582e6d7c58a85f6305f9 But it wasn’t just forex. Gold showed it to you as well. Bonds showed it to you as well. https://preview.redd.it/40j53u8th5151.png?width=3711&format=png&auto=webp&s=fe39ab51321d0f98149d33e33253e69f96c48e23 Even god damn buttcoin showed it to you. https://preview.redd.it/43lvafhvh5151.png?width=3705&format=png&auto=webp&s=1ef53283cbc0fb97f71c1ba935c0bd747809636e And they all did it for 2 days before the move hit equities. ​ Chapter V. LIQUIDITY NUKE INBOUND You see all these bankruptcies that happened so far, and all the ones that are going to follow? Do you think that’s just dogshit companies and it won’t have major effects on anything outside them? WRONG. Because there’s a lot of leveraged instruments on top of those equities. When the stock goes to 0, all those outstanding puts across all expirations get instantly paid. Understand that Feb-March was a liquidity MOAB. But this will end with a liquidity nuke. Here’s just HTZ for example: \$239,763,550 in outstanding puts. Just on a single dogshit small-cap company (this thing was like \$400m mkt. cap last week). And that’s just the options on the equity. There’s also instruments on etfs that hold HTZ, on the bonds, on the ETFs that hold their bonds, swaps, warrants, whatever. It’s a massive pile of leverage. Then there’s also the ripple effects. Were you holding a lot of HTZ in your brokerage margin account? Well guess what big boi, when that gaps to 0 you get a margin call, and then you become a liquidity drain. Holding long calls? 0. Bonds 0. DOG SHIT! And the market instantly goes from holding \$x in assets (HTZ equity / bonds / calls) to holding many multiples of x in LIABILITIES (puts gone wrong, margin loans, derivatives books, revolvers, all that crap). And it doesn’t matter if the Fed buys crap like HTZ bonds. You short them some. Because when it hits 0, it’s no longer about supply and demand. You get paid full price, straight from Jerome’s printer. Is the Fed going to buy every blown up derivative too? Because that's what they'd have to do. Think of liquidity as a car. The faster it goes, the harder it becomes to go even faster. At some point, you can only go faster by driving off a cliff. THE SQUEEZE. But you stop instantly when you hit the ground eventually. And that’s what shit’s doing all over the place right now. Rewatch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hG4X5iTK8M And just like that fucker, “I’m standing in front of a burning house, and I’m offering you fire insurance on it.” ​ Don’t baghold! Now is not the time to baghold junk. Take your cash. Not the time to buy cheap crap. You don’t buy Hertz. You don’t buy USO. You don’t buy airlines, or cruises, or GE, or motherfucking Disney. And if you have it, dump that shit. And the other dogshit that’s at ATH, congrats you’re in the green. Now you take your profits and fucking dump that shit. I’m talking shit like garbage SaaS, app shit, AI shit, etc. Garbage like MDB, OKTA, SNAP, TWLO, ZM, CHGG etc. And you dump those garbage ass leveraged ETFs. SQQQ, TQQQ, whatever, they’re all dogshit now. The leverage MUST unwind. And once that’s done, some of you will no longer be among us if you don’t listen. A lot of leveraged ETFs will be gone. Even some non-leveraged ETFs will be gone. Some brokers will be gone, some market makers will be gone, hell maybe even some big bank has to go under. I can’t know which ones will go poof, but I can guarantee you that some will. Another reason to diversify your shit. There’s a reason papa Warrant Buffet dumped his bags, don’t think you’re smarter than him. He may be senile, but he’s still a snake. And once the unwind is done, THEN you buy whatever cheap dogshit’s still standing. Got it? Good. You feel ready to play yet? Alright, so you catch a move. Or I post a move and you wanna play it. You put on a small position. When it’s going your way, YOU POUND DAT SHIT. Still going? Well RUSH B CYKA BLYAT AND PLANT THE GOD DAMN 3/20 \$30p BOMB. ​ Chapter VI - The mouthbreather-proof play - THE AKIMBO Still a dumbass that can’t make a play? Still want to go long? Well then, I got a dumbass-proof trade for you. I present to you THE AKIMBO: ​ STEP 1. You play this full blast. You need some real Russian hardbass to get you in the right mood for trading, cyka. STEP 2. Split your play money in 3. Remember to keep extra bankroll for POUNDING THAT SHIT. STEP 3. Use 1/3 of your cash to buy SQQQ 9/18 \$5p, pay \$0.05. Not more than \$0.10. STEP 4. Use 1/3 of your cash to buy TQQQ 9/18 \$20p, pay around \$0.45. Alternatively, if you’re feeling adventurous, 7/17 \$35p’s for around \$0.5. STEP 5. Use 1/3 of your cash to buy VIX PUT SPREADS 9/15 \$21/\$20 spread for around \$0.15, no more than \$0.25. That is, you BUY the 21p and SELL the 20p. Only using Robinhood and don’t have the VIX? What did I just tell you? Well fine, use UVXY then. Just make sure you don’t overpay. ​ ​ Chapter VII - Quick hints for non-mouthbreathers Quick tips, cuz apparently I'm out of space, there's a 40k character limit on reddit posts. Who knew? ​ Proshares is dogshit. If you don't understand the point in my last post, do this: download https://accounts.profunds.com/etfdata/ByFund/SQQQ-historical_nav.csv and https://accounts.profunds.com/etfdata/ByFund/SQQQ-psdlyhld.csv. Easier to see than with TQQQ. AUM: 1,174,940,072. Add up the value of all the t-bills = 1,686,478,417.49 and "Net other assets / cash". It should equal the AUM, but you get 2,861,340,576. Why? Because that line should read: NET CASH = -\$511,538,344.85 Major index rebalancing June 22. Watch the violent forex moves. 6/25 will be red. Don't ask, play a spread, bag a 2x-er. 6/19 will be red. Not settled yet, but a good chance 5/28 is red. Front run the rebalance. Front-run the front-runners of the rebalance too. TQQQ puts. Major retard flow in financials yesterday. Downward pressure now. GS 180 next weeks looks good. Buy leaps puts on dogshit bond ETFs (check holdings for dogshit) Buy TLT 1/15/2021 \$85ps for cheap, sell over \$1 when the Fed stops the ass rape, rinse and repeat TQQQ flow looks good: https://preview.redd.it/untvykuxea151.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a0a38c0acb088ebff689d043e48466eb76d38e2f ​ Good luck. Dr. Retard TQQQ Burry out. submitted by dlkdev to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

##### Extreme Difficulty tips

Since my other post became excessively large and the title increasingly misleading, I've decided to post a separate guide.

# Index

1. Economy & Empire
2. Resources
3. Military
4. Design
5. Miscellaneous

# 1. Economy & Empire

• Never tax early on, keep it at 0% until either the planet maxes out or you have no choice and need the funds. Population increases exponentially and you'll benefit from the increased early population growth through migration until the endgame. For reference, a top-quality max population planet can be taxed up to 100% for absurd income.
• Your private economy will pay a percentage of their total income as "tax" to the state, then aim to fulfill all utility demands, filling out the remaining cashflow with maintenance costs.
• In detail: First the taxes are deducted from private finances. Then, civs purchase ships and auto-build mining stations through your construction ships if there is utility demand. Thus tax reduces the amount of civ ships available in some cases yet frees up these funds for state matters like research and military. This also means the old argument "let your civs pay the bill" is partially true but only in case of surplus private spending or profit. Check the F6 screen to find out, but also look at spaceports to check if transports are gathering around doing nothing - a clear indication of a surplus. Increasing either civ maintenance costs or taxes will directly lower the amount of civ ships available (not existing mining stations). If there's no surplus to take this hit a deficit will form; hampering migration, tourism and resource transport (also mining if the stations fill up).
• In conclusion: Only in case of surplus private spending or profit you'll want to militarize mining stations and civ ships. The opposite is also true - you can over-tax the private economy given enough happiness bonuses (else colonies will rebel anyway). Also, low-maintenance civ ships and stations means more civ ships - bigger isn't necessarily better.
• While you should play as whichever race and government you enjoy most, wealth determines the size of your military and can be used to speed up research. Thus, economical bonuses are incredibly valuable (growth, happiness and colony income are excellent).
• The "change cycle" is very effective due to the exponential nature of population growth (earlier is better), allowing the Gizureans and Securans to expand very rapidly combined with their high base reproduction; to a lesser degree the Dhayut as well.
• Slowly reproducing races take more time to flourish, making the early to mid game more difficult but don't draw as much envy from other empires. Thus they have more freedom to choose their wars while the larger empires duke it out.
• Resorts are a deceptively good source of income. Proximity is more important than quality. Passengers tend to be ferried to resorts in small amounts, so passenger transports only require large holds for migration purposes.
• A few great empire-wide boosts: Firstly, Wonders. The Trade Guild (income) is incredibly powerful, especially if combined with the Holographic Universe (happiness). Growth is also useful though less near the endgame. The "Way of the Ancients" government type (from a ruin) is a boost in stats not unlike an empire-wide wonder while removing the Democracy's downsides. The "Way of Darkness" is a similarly powerful militant government type, including negative diplomatic fallout with non-militant empires, but may still be worth using as a relatively peaceful player.
• Wonders' development bonuses don't stack, though their unique bonuses do. Thus, one wonder at each colony is ideal for income with possible exception of the Holographic Network and Trader's Bazaar, which combine well if the Bazaar alone isn't enough to get tax up to 100% on your best colony (max population-wise) while maintaining 15-20 happiness. All in one place is more defensible though the development bonus can pay for protection.
• Buy a few empire contacts from pirates if you start in pre-warp. You'll likely get periodic monetary gifts to refund the costs and can trade your map for bonus income, ensuring you don't need to resort to taxation. You might be able to set up a few trade agreements early.
• Mutual defense pacts cause major alliances to be formed; galaxy-wide war is not uncommon if you join them. It can be fun but also dangerous by lessening your empire's ability to pick its battles. Neutrality (only trade agreements) is generally easier.
• When threatened with war at an inopportune moment consider trading trade sanctions aimed at a friendly empire. You can then end the sanctions immediately. Note that this is an exploit which can be used for trading even if you're not threatened.
• Another way to gain millions worth of "trade value" is to build mining stations in enemy territory. Beware that this will cause a temporary relationship penalty.

# 2. Resources

• Gas stations are often picked for automated refueling missions and thus benefit from a handful of docking ports, though manual spaceport selection for fleet refueling lowers this necessity.
• Rare luxury resources can be shared for a significant diplomacy boost, making the entire galaxy more friendly towards you using a single colony or mining station.
• Caslon/Hydrogen are the two fuel types and you'll likely want to use both to avoid shortages. Caslon engines provide more power and energy capacity per size and are thus ideal for military vessels, while Hydrogen is very fuel-efficient and thus ideal for civ/base use. The top-tier engine uses Hydrogen, at which point it may be useful to swap Caslon to civs and Hydrogen to military use.
• Spaceports are best used as construction yards as freighters will prioritize them to offload or centralize resources. Thus, you don't need many unless there's a freighter deficit. Colonies can be serviced with medical, recreational and defensive facilities through the Defensive Base instead.
• Different freighter sizes are useful simply because having designs for them causes your civs to buy more (they don't adapt to having less options), but otherwise don't seem to behave any differently. You can use one design and copy it. This understanding also provides the option of reducing the amount of freighters when desired by marking a freighter design as obsolete.

# 3. Military

• Your finances determine the max size of your military, while resources determine how quickly ships are built and whether or not they have fuel available. Tech, size and your design skills (particularly range setup and weapon choice) mostly determine individual ship power.
• Extreme difficulty demands that you pick fights selectively until the lategame. Diplomacy is the best defense.
• Sometimes it's a great idea to spend all your funds on an all-out blitz invasion of a friendly neighboring empire, notably when they only have a single or few colonies. Use troop transports and primarily armored ground forces, no weapons, and create an amount of fleets equal to the amount of colonies with troop numbers proportional to their targets - roughly 3x troop power is advised, even 4x if there's a swarm of ships around the colony (they'll likely have troops, which will land almost immediately). Just before invading, position your troop transports directly above the center of the target colony (moving towards a port or vessel is ideal for this), pausing as necessary. When ready, simultaneously invade - they won't be able to retaliate, and everything they owned is now yours.
• It's best to retrofit bases but retire any ships to assimilate their technology.
• Pirates are best paid off immediately for a cheap protection arrangement. As your relationship improves over time they'll be less inclined to break it. Thus for a small and manageable price pirates don't need to be much of a bother. Alternatively, destroying them for good by wiping their bases (including any Criminal Networks) and construction ship can be the better option, but only if you achieve a quick victory. Fail, and you've now got a persistent enemy who can only be bought off at a ludicrous price which keeps going up as they periodically break your arrangement.
• Passive territory defense can globally be done in three ways: Defense fleets using posture to defend key areas, automated non-fleet ships (not escorts/frigates as they'll waste time following civs) and militarizing everything (inefficient). If you're using ships there are a few important considerations to actually make them effective: Response times (range-appropriate hyperdrives), delaying the enemy (armoshields, Gravity Well, shield bypassing damage) and keeping your empire's territory "tight".
• An Admiral with +attack power will massively increase damage dealt at max range for falloff weapons as damage loss/distance does not increase proportionally, making long-range torps overpowered. Having a good Admiral can in general make your main fleet immensely powerful. Note that +maneuver and +speed apply to fighters to increase their DPS significantly while helping your carriers dictate range.
• If the F11 screen is correct, which I doubt, Admiral bonuses stack.
• Explorer ships without weapons are ignored by out-of-range enemies and can thus be used for long-range scanning. Park one in a gas cloud with excess energy collectors (~2x) for sustained operation.

# 4. Design

• Regarding range dictation, "Standoff" will make the AI attempt to stay at the widest equipped weapon range, causing the ship to err in both directions - sometimes too far, sometimes too close. "Evade" is ideal for carriers as this keeps the margin of error closer to safety. "Point Blank" is ideal for any weapon with sharp damage falloff like blasters, gravs, rails and some torps, though mixed weapons on a single ship benefit from "All Weapons". Different ranges against weakestronger opponents are mostly useful in small engagements as the enemy is likely to target closer ships, meaning there's no such thing as a "weaker opponent" in large battles.
• Tractor beams are amazing: Pulling enemies works well in any situation to close distance including large fleet engagements - your fleet will suck in individual ships and blast them to bits, maintaining range advantage both in offense (hitting a nearby target) and defense (getting shot at from far away). Pushing works well unless outnumbered.
• For military ships, bigger is better. Firepower housed in a tanky hull stays operational longer as opposed to small ships getting picked off early. They'll have high boarding defense due to hab modules and greater ability to flee before taking fatal damage.
• Smaller ships are not faster: A ship double the size with double the thrusters will achieve equal speed.
• Resupply ships are essentially supercapitals, going up to 4500 size at max construction, minus 20% on "resupply parts" (cargo bays/docks/gas extractors) = 3600 usable size (1.6 carriers or 2.4 capitals). Note that: The resupply parts will cost around 10% of the maintenance and slow down the ship somewhat, they can only be built on colonies as opposed to construction yards, while deployed they won't defend themselves actively and they refuse to refuel from their own cargo bays. Despite all that they're incredibly powerful.
• A good fleet command ship to keep the Admiral and fleet countermeasures/targeting safe is one without hyperdrive. Minimal speed and a single fuel cell ensures it never leaves the homeworld system. If this seems cheesy, use a cowardly tank instead.
• Though weapons are only as good as the tactics and Admiral they're used with, it's safe to say gravs, rails and blasters (not phasers) show their weakness in Extreme mode. Gravs have a low time-to-kill even if mounted on supercapitals while rails and blasters have poor accuracy in large quantities.
• However, a single grav will damage a ship's hull to make it flee prematurely - great on defensive ships/stations.
• Area weapons are very powerful in fleet engagements yet mediocre (not weak) in small engagements. They're bottlenecked by energy capacity and thus combine well with high energy/s modules to get the most out of your reactors. They also combine poorly with tractor beams as you'll want the enemy to swarm together.
• If you find a superweapon, use it - especially the Devastator. A few supercapitals with Devastators will make even Extreme difficulty easy.
• There are three possible strategies to ship defense: Capacity (shields/armor), sustain (recharge/repair) and speed/range. It's a good idea to specialize in one or two of these strategies, not all three.
• Very fast ships set to Evade or long range Standoff don't require much shields/armor, benefit strongly from sustain and rarely get their shields bypassed or boarded.
• Calculate "armor recharge" when using a repair bot. The base rate at max tech is 13.33/s (40/3) or 20/s (40/2) with an Ikkuro bot, though more in practice due to reactive armor damage reduction (20% against a point blank torp, more against most weapons). In other words, the sustain equivalent of at least 11 top-tech shields or 16 with an Ikkuro bot, without the energy cost.
• The energy requirement of a ship in combat is simply "sprint + weapons + shield recharge" when compared to "excess energy output" as shown on the design screen.
• Slightly draining the reactor is permissible as engagements tend to be brief and early damage will take enemies out of the fight sooner (~60 secs is a good aim), unless using area shield recharge (these will not be used if the reactor is drained).
• Point defenses are used situationally, meaning they're allowed to drain the reactor more rapidly.
• Fleeing causes a ship to switch to cruise speed, freeing up the reactor significantly. Still, make sure it has enough energy to warp, else it gets stranded.
• Low delay hyper jumping is better than you might think, particularly on dense maps and with sustain tanking. This allows military ships to flee before taking crippling damage, giving them time to regenerate shields or repair. They'll then get back into the fight or at least avoid destruction. Civs will often take short trips, particularly if you intentionally limit their fuel capacity. However, max speed hyper drives are significantly faster across long distances (1-2+ sectors). The top-tier Torrent Drive is outright better than earlier options, except the Kaldos for hit-and-run tactics (33% longer delay - 3 to 4 seconds).
• Partially built stations are already functional, meaning component order can be optimized for earlier operation (that includes mining, med/rec facilities, armor etc). Also, you can use a bare-bones design to "plop" down a base quickly and retrofit it afterwards to save construction ship time - particularly useful when pre-building a defensive base on a new colony.
• A few non-obvious things: Spaceports don't require cargo bays. Damage control and repair bots don't stack. A single component plant (weapon, energy, hitech) each is sufficient unless you want to churn out 30+ large ships at once - good planning makes adding more largely obsolete. More than one construction yard per construction ship is wasted as additional yards will not improve speed (including yards used on stations - these just add more queues). Exploration ships ought to be kept lightweight so you can field more. Mining/Gas stations can extract resources without fuel or energy. The "mining cap" is reached at 4 Mining Engines or 3 Gas Extractors.

# 5. Miscellaneous

• Intelligence Agents (spies) can be used to boost research progress tremendously, give access to otherwise expensive or inaccessible race-specific tech and steal particularly large galaxy maps (the latter can be sold to other empires). Particularly the Haakonish "Compressed Fuel Storage" is an amazing steal as this renders two subsequent research options obsolete.
• Watch your research cap. Too many or too few labs is wasteful, though too few is definitely worse. Always take advantage of location research bonuses as these are applied after the cap. Put your best scientists on these locations to further increase the bonus (only the highest total bonus of any one station+resident scientist applies). A unique "home base" spaceport can house your labs, adding more as you near the cap, using only 3 research stations total for the bonuses throughout the game. A scientist with the "Ultra Genius" trait should be held onto for a +20% bonus to all fields.
Lastly, two off-topic tips:
A great way to test any game mechanic or ship build is to start a game at tech 7, or just backup one of your endgame saves for later use.
Star amount largely governs the drain on your PC's hardware. If you're experiencing stutter, consider playing on a less populated map. You can lower the map size to keep inter-system distances similar, though vast distances add a certain "deep space" charm to gameplay.
submitted by Gessie00 to DistantWorlds [link] [comments]

##### AEF - A Misunderstood Superannuation Fund

 Although AEF uniquely benefits from the structural tailwinds of both superannuation and ethical investing, we believe it remains misunderstood as an expensive traditional fund manager. ​ The Opportunity Australian Ethical Funds (ASX.AEF) is a public market superannuation fund manager. The perception of the company itself vs. the industry is nicely summarised by the two figures below. Herein lies the opportunity. ​ https://preview.redd.it/jhvvua1t5oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=e511deb4411e81840ffcf8b635e1d8f7b78eeb6e AEF is a renowned Australian fund manager that fits within the ESG trend. It represents one of the only pure play superannuation investments in the Australian public market, with 67% of funds under management (FUM) coming from superannuation. The stock bounced exceptionally from a low of \$2 in March, reaching a high of \$9 in June, and has since retraced towards the low \$4s. Previously, the business traded at \$6+ following its announcement of end of year FUM and expected earnings figures. On 8th August IOOF Holdings (ASX.IFL) – 19.9% shareholder – announced it was divesting 15% of its stake in AEF. IOOF is a peer and platform provider which offers AEF products to its clients. The investment was sold at \$5.24 vs. market price of \$5.90. IOOF disclosed it was selling its AEF investment (at a gain) to raise much needed liquidity. The block trade was viewed negatively by the market, with AEF immediately re-rating to below \$5.24 and trending downwards (towards low \$4s) ever since. The current share price of \$4.17 (24 August close) implies the stock is trading at ~51x FY20 earnings guidance, which is slightly above historical levels despite substantially improved performance and outlook. We suspect that the FY20 results will be aligned with guidance (as demonstrated historically) provided in the quarterly FUM update and guided earnings figures. Results have also been positive across its peers throughout mid to late August (see ‘Roadmap’). ​ https://preview.redd.it/t4oy3ksu5oj51.png?width=478&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2a88ef0bf70fba2e85d36bc71a1df2994217dcf Company History AEF began as Australian Ethical Investments (AEI) in 1986 and was owned by 600 insider shareholders before listing. It is a superannuation fund – so revenue is derived from fees on managing invested funds. By 2005, the business managed four unit trusts and a superannuation fund: · Australian Ethical Balanced Trust (est. 1989) · Australian Ethical Equities Trust (est. 1994) · Australian Ethical Income Trust (est. 1997) · Australian Ethical Large Companies Share Trust (est. 1997) · Parent of Australian Ethical Superannuation (est. 1998) The investments of the trust and super fund are guided by ‘The Charter’ – a series of positive and negative investment screens that must be taken into account when selecting securities for inclusion. ​ https://preview.redd.it/cye711106oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=60c149549d7d752c26108c662ec319b56ebf371a In July 2005, the government enacted policy that afforded more choice to individual employees with regards to their superannuation provider (marking the beginning of a positive era for the superannuation industry). In that same year, AEF registered for a superannuation license which it was granted in 2006. Back in 2005/06 the company did not split out superannuation FUM, but FUM increased from \$311m in Jun-05 to \$380m in September-05 following this policy shift – suggesting there was an existing demand for ethical investment products in superannuation. From 2005 to 2011, AEF grew total FUM from \$311m to \$644m, despite muted FUM growth through the GFC-era. In 2012, the business began separating out its superannuation FUM-growth to improve its visibility. This era saw FUM increasing from \$617m in 2012 to \$4.05bn as at 30 June 2020. From 2016-19 reduction in FUM-based fees has seen suppressed revenue growth vs. FUM growth. This has resulted in several step changes in FUM-based revenue margins (revenue / FUM) as a result of lower overall fees earned on products. We view this shift as a positive in the long-run since AEF has competitively priced its funds, entrenching their competitive advantages (discussed below) and reducing the temptation that fee-conscious members switch funds. Since AEF has ratcheted the cost of their funds downwards (often ahead of their peers and industry averages), we believe fee compression improves the durability of AEFs revenue compared to peers who are yet to compress their margins. ​ https://preview.redd.it/fcq5jog26oj51.png?width=453&format=png&auto=webp&s=d194c8778727e9adf1ebc162e6b181d8207cc292 Business Model AEF has a relatively simple business model – revenue is derived from fees on managing invested funds. The funds it manages includes retail, institutional and wholesale (non-super) funds, as well as superannuation funds. We are most interested in the superannuation business although the direct and indirect benefits associated with the funds management business are a noteworthy component to the brand and investment management infrastructure (i.e. ideation / performance fee generating / high performing ESG). Until 2012, AEF did not explicitly separate its super vs. non-super FUM. We believe this contributed to its (mis)perception as a traditional fund manager rather than a superannuation fund. Thankfully, since 2012 AEF has provided details relating to the composition of its FUM (below), and noticeably the growth in its superannuation FUM has been the driving force of the business. ​ https://preview.redd.it/6ccbtqm36oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=6fb4e11064313ca9ab7b57186b2eddc6be62b928 Competitive Advantage 1. Superannuation Exposure: Superannuation FUM is higher growth and lower risk than traditional managed funds. Superannuation funds are regulated to grow at 9.5% due to the Superannuation Guarantee (the Australian Government mandated superannuation contribution). The regulatory framework could see this increase up to 12% in the medium-term and 14% in the long-term. For the purpose of our analysis, we have assumed a constant 9.5% contribution – so any increase would be additional upside. More importantly, excluding fulfilling conditions of release (i.e. death) an individual's superannuation cannot be withdrawn until retirement. Much like the Superannuation Guarantee, withdrawals are also mandated on a schedule that increases as a percentage of FUM with age (beginning at 4% and increasing to 14%). Consequently, the minimum inflows and withdrawals are predictable (and we note the vast majority of individuals do not deviate from these minimum levels due to inertia). Because of this mandated growth, Australia has the fourth largest pension sector in absolute terms and second largest relative to GDP (below). In 2020, the total superannuation pool is ~\$2.1trn and growing. It is estimated that by 2040 superannuation assets could be as much as \$9trn according to the Australian Treasury. ​ https://preview.redd.it/wenevil56oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=c2210a8e26816af1ebf798d82c414c61760c5d5e Alternatively, traditional managed funds are subject to redemption risk, caused (typically) by performance and myopic investor behaviour associated with general market movements. Therefore, FUM growth for traditional managed funds must be attracted through marketing and distribution channels. This inextricably links fund inflows and outflows to performance and marketing efforts, which in turn causes a clientele that is more expensive to acquire and retain, and a more volatile pool of assets. Alternatively, traditional managed funds may access capital through secondary capital raisings and the reinvestment of distributions; both of which are a country mile from a 9.5% government mandated contribution. Logically, we wondered which (listed) asset could provide us with exposure to the exceptionally robust superannuation tailwind. We will not spend too much time detailing the industry dynamics and public market players as there is a lot of information to be found in various prospectus’ (see Raiz or OneVue prospectus). The main thing to understand is that superannuation funds can be separated into five buckets: ​ https://preview.redd.it/jyykix976oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=07e96ebc246a565546e400ef87018d3d3360cd48 After screening for diversified financials and financials businesses on the ASX there were 53 players with at least some revenue linked to superannuation. The revenue exposure desired is revenue linked to superannuation FUM (explained further in the ‘Valuation’). However, it is important to understand that gaining access to this lucrative industry is difficult for several reasons: · Private industry funds – the gems of the industry have been private superannuation funds such as CBUS, Hostplus, and ESTA. We cannot access them as public market investors. · Conglomerate financials – it is possible to gain some retail superannuation exposure within the banking majors such as CBA, WBC, ANZ and NAB. However, they represent insignificant exposure by revenue and profit and the stocks are driven by other risk and growth factors. · Fund managers – fund managers may directly manage retail superfunds or SMSF funds such as Magellan, Platinum and Perpetual. However, there is limited visibility over superannuation FUM exposure. · Superannuation adjacency businesses – superannuation exposure can also be housed within wealth / platform advisers such as like HUB24, Netwealth and OneVue. However, to varying degrees, these businesses are not purely exposed to superannuation-FUM linked revenue. · Pure play sub-scale – the final example can be found in Raiz, which is a sub-scale business that has ~\$450m in FUM of which 85% is funds management. It is possible to envisage this business as an AEF in 10-15 years with larger superannuation FUM exposure. Although the superannuation exposure representing \$70m in FUM currently (vs. AEF \$2.72bn) is vastly inferior to AEF. For this reason, AEF is the closest to a pure play (at scale) superannuation player. Putting this together, we believe AEF is likely to continue to grow its FUM at 20% p.a. YoY. This is principally due to AEF's ability to acquire new members and retain existing members. Therefore, to monitor this continued FUM growth going forward we encourage readers to look out of the number of superannuation members added in these upcoming results and beyond. AEF has grown its member base YoY consistently in an industry which has, on average, been relatively flat in terms of member growth. In 2019 AEF was the highest growing superannuation business in Australia across the previous 5-years. ​ https://preview.redd.it/c4t7jx596oj51.png?width=226&format=png&auto=webp&s=51e47aa607470ce6482ed30352183a6cf6043bff 1. Ethical, Social and Governance (ESG): Beyond the obvious tailwinds in superannuation, AEF is also exposed to another important trend: ESG. Needless to say, ESG investing is becoming not only popular but almost mandatory for corporate money managers. Younger demographic investors are increasingly concerned with the ethical and social impacts of corporate activity. This report by Harvard and another by State Street provide some interesting commentary on the issue. ESG ETFs have been growing at a CAGR of >30%, and State Street forecasts that the global ESG ETF market will increase from US\$170bn in 2020 to US\$1.3trn in 2030. Momentum for ESG ETFs has been building specifically in Australia, where AUM surged almost 300% — from A\$554.1m in 2017 to A\$2.2bn in 2019. Whilst the ESG-shift has been occurring since the 2010s, State Street argue that COVID-19 will only further catalyse this shift by highlighting the inherent inequalities in society and health care systems, in turn, spurring social conscience. We note the following data points as indicators of this more recent catalyst: · Perpetual’s recent acquisition of Trillium, a US-based ESG fund, shows the desire of traditional asset managers to become exposed to this space. · BlackRock has started publishing more frequently and consistently on ESG trends and continued rolling out ESG products. · Forager’s investment blog received frequent commentary from investors talking about negative screening on their gambling holdings which has never been the case in the past. The key insight is that a growing proportion of the investment community through time is becoming concerned with ESG issues and this will drive fund flow. Industry data is pointing to the fact that this is a prolonged structural shift rather than a short-term trend. 2. Performance: AEF has improved upon their exposure to structural industry trends in superannuation and ESG through excellent fund performance. AEF's performance (below) has been consistently strong across all of their strategies (we highly recommend reading page 4 of Sequoia's June 15, 2020 "Investor Day Transcript" to highlight how governance and performance are complimentary). Such strong performance not only disincentivises members from switching to competitors and assists member acquisition, but also significantly enhances earnings at the group level. For instance, FY20 guidance provided on 7 July 2020 vs. 22 June had a midpoint difference of ~\$2m. Given the long track record of the managers it is expected performance will remain strong. ​ https://preview.redd.it/p6shg5nc6oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=e65acb553371c6bc7c1f70ddfdf153e9e625117a ​ https://preview.redd.it/mtn23k7d6oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a7ba471248070f9f05216cdf5bbcab2a1f9102b Valuation Key: · FUM = funds under management · FUA = funds under administration · MA = managed accounts · FU\ = total funds (FUM + FUA + MA)* Valuing a Superannuation Member: Our valuation technique here will be somewhat unconventional. We will attempt to value the lifetime revenue per member (LRM) for AEF and for a traditional fund and then highlight the incongruity of their relative valuations. The long-term nature of lifecycle retirement saving (and by virtue the true value of a superannuation fund) demands a long term perspective. Fortunately, the mandated nature of AEFs cash flows facilitates evaluating the lifetime value of a superannuation member. To estimate the LRM we consider the following: (i) life cycle expectations (i.e. retirement age and life expectancy); (ii) salary expectations; (iii) superannuation contribution rate; (iv) investment returns; (v) member "type;" (vi) fee structure; and (vii) a discount rate. We begin by assuming a member makes \$5,000p.a. at age 20, which grows to \$130,000p.a. through the middle of their working life (35-50) and then declines to \$90,000p.a. at 65 (noting these are gross values not inflation adjusted). Since the average member account balance for AEF is ~\$60,000 (FUM of \$4.05bn (\$2.72bn of which is superannuation) / 43,000 members = \$60,000 as at 30 June 2019), we can roughly assume that the average age of their member is between 30-35, which places them at the profitable end of this member acquisition cycle. Further, this member regularly contribute 9.5% of their earnings to their superannuation, which compounds at a rate of 6% p.a. Moreover, the prototypical member starts working / paying superannuation into AEF at age 20, retires at age 65, and redeems according to the minimum withdrawal schedule until age 85. However, how many members live according to this prescribed lifecycle; supported by an uninterrupted working life? What about people that take time off to raise children, either returning to part-time work or full-time work? We can model these archetypes also, which assumes much lower income growth and some years of earning no income. If we assume that society is roughly split into thirds by these archetypes (i.e. 1/3 uninterrupted, 1/3 interrupted and return part time, 1/3 interrupted and return full time), then we can calculate a weighted average LRM for the average member. Compressing fees by more than half to 50bps and assuming a 7% discount rate we arrive a weighted average discounted LRM of ~\$18,000. Whilst comparing this to the average member in another non-super fund is difficult for an array of reasons (i.e. average acquisition age, average income, average balance, average contribution, redemption allowance etc.), we can loosely estimate what this looks. Adopting the same framework as above, to estimate the LRM of an average managed fund member we must first define the managed fund member "archetype." First, we assume the average traditional fund member has a higher income profile (as lower income earners typically do not invest in managed funds). We tweak the income profile to peak at \$180,000 between 35-50 and taper down to \$120,000 by age 65. Second, we assume the acquisition age is 30 years rather than 20 to reflect that most individuals do not invest in traditional managed funds until later in life. Thirdly, we account for the non-compulsory nature of managed fund contributions. If we start with the marginal savings rate (10-year average of ~7%) as a proxy for available funds for investment and increase this to align with our ‘managed funds’ archetype who has higher income to 15%. We then assume that from this 15%, about 1/3 will be invested into a managed fun (or ~5%). Therefore, for our individual earning \$180,000 during peak working years, this is an annual contribution of \$7,200. Finally, we increase the discount rate to 9% since because redemptions are more likely in a traditional fund. Using these alternative assumptions, we arrive at a LRM of ~\$5,000. The significant difference in LRM helps explain why a superannuation business can command a much higher multiple of FUM or earnings. Further, we believe our estimate of LRM for a traditional fund manager is quite bullish (i.e. overstated) due to the following: (i) it assumes the individual works full-time for their entire life; and (ii) it assumes the individual stays with the fund from age 30 to 65 and makes uninterrupted and stable contributions. Although dollar cost averaging is touted as an eighth wonder of the world, we are doubtful it is applied as often as it is spoken. Trading Multiples Valuation: Valuing AEF on a relative basis is difficult given the lack of peers. Against traditional fund managers (i.e. Magellan, Perpetual and Platinum), which trade between 5-20x earnings, and superannuation exposed platforms (i.e. Netwealth and Hub24), which trade between 25-40x earnings, AEF looks relatively expensive. We are acutely aware that AEF is currently (at ~\$4.2) trading at 12.6% of FUM and ~51x earnings; and at its peak (~\$9) was trading at 25% of FUM and 120x earnings. We believe the valuation difference is driven by the quality of the FUM managed and, therefore, the quality of the earnings growth. Given their high alignment to superannuation, NWL and HUB are the two most comparable firms to AEF. As the trailing figures show, AEF appears to be trading on par with its peers. However, an important nuance is the trailing figure for AEF is based on 2019 earnings, whilst for NWL and HUB it is based on FY20 earnings given they have already reported. As such, on a like-for-like basis AEF’s ‘trailing’ earnings multiple (based on the mid-point of management’s guidance) is actually ~51x. This means it is trading below NWL and HUB, despite the fact that the majority of those businesses’ FU* is linked to FUA rather than FUM, which has a lower monetisation rate. Not to mention, the split between superannuation and managed funds is not as clearly delineated as is the case with AEF. What is also evident is limited analyst coverage of AEF and lack of forecast guidance assisting the market to predict growth (as is the case with NWL and HUB). Relative to traditional fund managers (i.e. PPT, PTM and MFG), we note the substantial difference in FUM and business quality. AEF hosts the highest monetization rate (Rev/FUM), even whilst facing fee compression, with the highest FUM growth among its investment management peers. Furthermore, we expect EBIT margins will improve from ~30% toward its larger traditional fund managers peers due to economies of scale over time that we believe will more than offset any fee compression. AEF has also supported a very high ROE due to its sticky clientele and service-based business model. The combination of: (i) best in class monetization; (ii) high LTM and increasing membership base; (iii) improving margins; and (iv) high ROE will make for an incredible growth engine on earnings in the long term. Thus, AEF is a higher quality business with ~4x+ the LCM of a traditional fund trading at only a 2-3x premium using current ratios... ​ https://preview.redd.it/nffeuvef6oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=e0aed3fcb4464355aa965ed151d6dc2e484ff4b8 Risks We note the following investment risks with AEF: Fee Compression – The funds management industry is subject to fee compression across both funds and superannuation funds. There has already been a lot of restructuring of AEF’s fees since 2016. The investment product(s) they advocate is also one that serves an ethical / moral dimension and can arguably be charged at a premium above market. Notwithstanding fee compression beyond that which we have considered would place downward pressure on margins. Member Attrition – The stickiness of AEF's membership base is a hallmark of their competitive advantage although this could be reversed over time due to poor performance or corporate mismanagement. We encourage the reader to keep an eye on member growth and net inflows over time. Product Reproduction – There is no official IP upon ESG investing and new products are increasingly being promoted to capture market share of this growing market. We believe AEF's early mover and strong brand serve to mitigate this risk. Regulatory Risks – Changes in the superannuation regulatory environment can be material. This has long been debated within the public domain although it has been viewed as politically unfavourable to change the superannuation system without a reasonably long lead time and grandfathering provisions, which we hope would make any changes unlikely and less meaningful. Investment Roadmap Peers’ Earnings Updates: In summary, the FY20 results of peers indicate that businesses with revenues dependent on investment funds have performed quite strongly during this period. ​ https://preview.redd.it/np04rasg6oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=0de02bee60036e9bd71068815e618c2f3711db24 Earnings Announcement: Earnings release on 26 August 2020 should provide for the first catalyst to remind the market of the AEF's fundamental performance. The key figures here will be superannuation FUM, superannuation members and FY20 earnings. AEF will also provide ongoing quarterly FUM announcements, with the following update due in early October. We may also see a mid-August FUM figure in the most recent announcement. Finally, AEF has historically provided updated FUM in back-dated results announcements. Evidence of this occurring can also be found in HUB's most recent announcement: ​ https://preview.redd.it/jz8frxfi6oj51.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=325d7973e1eb6c98e714dea69306b1ebf8ab0cc7 Private Market Activity: Whilst we think that a private equity buyout is unlikely for AEF, further media exposure and transaction data points should help the public value these assets. There have been some recently executed and rumoured deal activity in the space through 2020. Notably, KKR – one of the largest US-based global private equity funds – bought a 55% stake in Colonial First State valued at ~\$3bn from CBA. The implied valuation was ~16x EBITDA, despite the quality of business model and LTM of members being substantially weaker than AEF. There is similar PE interest in NAB’s MLC Wealth, with US funds CC Capital and FC Flowers on second round bids for the asset. NAB's MLC Wealth business caught the attention of Carlyle, BlackRock, and KKR earlier in the year although deals were not executed. The interest from KKR in Colonial is particularly notable, given Scott Bookmyer (KKR partner) who refers to Australian superannuation as the ‘the envy of the western world’. We believe AEF may benefit indirectly from private equity interest, which will confirm both the long-term value and viability of their business model. submitted by Bruticus91 to ASX_Bets [link] [comments]

Margin vs markup. The difference between gross margin and markup is small but important. The former is the ratio of profit to the sale price and the latter is the ratio of profit to the purchase price (Cost of Goods Sold). In layman's terms, profit is also known as either markup or margin when we're dealing with raw numbers, not percentages. Using your own money, you could purchase 1,000 shares at \$30 per share. If you use margin, you can increase the number of shares you can buy. Let’s say you buy 1,500 shares. At this point your total portfolio with margin would be \$45,000, instead of the \$30,000 you could’ve bought with just your money. A margin account allows traders to trade stocks with borrowed funds. Basically, the brokerage loans traders money, charges them interest, and then uses their accounts equity as collateral. Trading with a margin account can give you access to more trading capital, and that allows you to buy larger share sizes. Margin Requirement = Current Price × Units Traded × Margin. For example, if you want to place a trade of \$10000 with a 2% margin with 50:1 leverage. So, the required margin is \$200. Therefore, in a simple sentence, required margin express the percentage of the margin. Margin trading tends to amplify gains and/or losses; for instance, when the price of assets in an account rises, trading on margin allows investors to use leverage to increase their gains. However, when the prices of these assets fall, the loss in value is much greater than the regular trading of assets.

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## Lesson 10: All about margin and leverage in forex trading ...

What is free margin and how to calculate this? This is a very common question, and we are here to show you what exactly you're asking for! Watch now and learn the manual calculation of free margin. in this video you can learn about , what is margin and why you need to know about it while trading in the market. Loading... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically ... Get more information about IG US by visiting their website: https://www.ig.com/us/future-of-forex Get my trading strategies here: https://www.robbooker.com C... www.tradingbanks.com In this lesson, we will tackle about Margin Level. It is very important for traders since it is used to determine whether a trader can open new positions or not. Check out our ... BankNifty Future Trading Margin Requirement 1 Lot BUY & SELL में कितना Funds Utilized होगा LIVE🔴 - Duration: 16:32. Tech & Finance 15,152 views 16:32

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